Happy (belated) Halloween Happy Halloween cont

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Happy (belated) Halloween

Happy Halloween cont.

Happy Halloween cont.

Try it out.

  • Reflect back on what you taught.
  • Use the paper provided
    • Write out/create an assessment of what you taught.


  • What were you assessing?


  • Standards (benchmarks)
  • Learning Outcomes
  • Competencies

The Need is an always has been there

  • D&C 107: 99-100 Wherefore, now let every man learn his duty, and to act in the office in which he is appointed, in all diligence.  100 He that is slothful shall not be counted worthy to stand, and he that learns not his duty and shows himself not approved shall not be counted worthy to stand. Even so. Amen.
  • Abr. 3: 25  25 And we will prove them herewith, to see if they will do all things whatsoever the Lord their God shall command them;
  • D&C 84:  79 Behold, I send you out to prove the world, and the laborer is worthy of his hire.

Teaching for Success

  • Student Write:
  • Compare and contrast student achievement and student learning.
    • What’s the differences?
    • Is the difference important?
    • How does/or does the difference impact your efforts as a:
      • Student?
      • Teacher?

Teaching for Success

  • Define evaluation:
    • "Evaluation" is the systematic determination of merit, worth, and significance of something or someone.
  • Define assessment:
    • Assessment is the process of documenting, usually in measurable terms, knowledge, skills, attitudes and beliefs.

Evaluation or Assessment?

Evaluation or Assessment?

Evaluation or Assessment cont.

  • How can you measure what learning looks like?
    • Traditional methods?
  • Is it possible to have an exam that actually measures what it is testing?

what’s this?

why not?!

  • Usually there are more true answers than false on most tests.
  • If there is no guessing penalty, then guess. You have a 50% chance of getting the right answer.
  • Read through each statement carefully, and pay attention to the qualifiers and keywords.
  • Qualifiers like "never, always, and every mean that the statement must be true all of the time. Usually these type of qualifiers lead to a false answer.
  • Qualifiers like "usually, sometimes, and generally" mean that if the statement can be considered true or false depending on the circumstances. Usually these type of qualifiers lead to an answer of true.
  • If any part of the question is false, then the entire statement is false but just because part of a statement is true doesn't necessarily make the entire statement true.

what’s this?

  • All of the following are correct procedures for putting out a fire in a pan on the stove except:
    • a.Do not move the pan.
    • b.Pour water into the pan.
    • c.Slide a fitted lid onto the pan.
    • d.Turn off the burner controls.
  • Which of the following foods are dairy products?
  • a. milk
  • b. ice cream
  • c. yogurt
  • d. cream cheese
  • e. all of the above
  • ______ is a country in South America.
  • a. Russia
  • b. Argentina
  • c. Mexico
  • d. Japan
  • e. none of the above
  • Was the infantry invasion of Japan a viable alternative to the use of the atomic bomb to end World War II? Is so, why? If not, why not?
    • A. Yes; transport ships were available in sufficient numbers.
    • B. Yes; island defenses in Japan were minimal.
    • C. No; estimated casualties would have been much greater.
    • D. No; Japan was on the verge of having an atomic bomb.
    • E. No best answer.
  • For example, if your test includes a section with only two multiple-choice items of 4 alternatives each (a b c d), you can expect 1 out of 16 of your students to correctly answer both items by guessing blindly.

why not?! biased objectivity

  • Choose the most general answer when other choices are specific.
  • Choose the longest answer when others are much shorter.
  • Choose the answer with a middle value when other answers are higher or lower.
  • Choose neither of the similar answers.
  • Choose one of two opposite answers.
  • Choose the answer that agrees grammatically. For ex: a, and an = singular, are = plural.
  • Choose the answer most synonymous with key words in the question or statement.
  • Count the number of blanks in fill-in questions or statements.
  • Choose from among familiar answers. Avoid unknown options.
  • Choose the most logical answer to you.
  • Avoid answers with absolutes in them. Examples are always, never, every, none, all, only.)

Checklist for Reviewing Multiple-Choice Items

  • Has the item been constructed to assess a single written objective?
  • Is the item based on a specific problem stated clearly in the stem?
  • Does the stem include as much of the item as possible, without including irrelevant material?
  • Is the stem stated in positive form?
  • Are the alternatives worded clearly and concisely?
  • Are the alternatives mutually exclusive?
  • Are the alternatives homogeneous in content?
  • If the item has been administered before, has its effectiveness been analyzed?
  • Are the alternatives free from clues as to which response is correct?
  • Have the alternatives “all of the above” and “none of the above” been avoided? 9 Does the item include as many functional distracters as are feasible?
  • Does the item include one and only one correct or clearly best answer?
  • Has the answer been randomly assigned to one of the alternative positions?
  • Is the item laid out in a clear and consistent manner?
  • Are the grammar, punctuation, and spelling correct?
  • Has unnecessarily difficult vocabulary been avoided?


  • So… are short answer, open-ended,
  • and/or essay questions any better?
  • It depends.

Types of Testing

  • Recognition
    • True-false
    • Multiple-choice
    • Multiple-answer
    • Matching
    • Ordering
  • Recall
    • Short Answer
    • Completion
    • Essay

Average Time

  • Item Type
  • True-false
    • 30 seconds
  • Multiple-choice and Multiple-answer
    • 60 – 90 seconds
  • Matching and Ordering
    • 30 seconds per response
  • Short Answer
    • 120 seconds
  • Completion
    • 60 seconds
  • Essay
    • 10 – 30 minutes

General Rules

  • Simple and direct wording
  • Avoid jargon
  • Avoid trivia items
  • Match items to learning outcomes
  • Each item has an agreed upon correct answer
  • Write more questions than you will need
  • Avoid the use of negatives
  • Enough information to answer the question
  • Direct questions preferred
  • Blanks at the end of the stem
  • Include words repeated in all responses
  • Provide constraints: time, etc.
  • 3-5 per item
  • Avoid “all of the above” and “none of the above”
  • Grammatically correct with stem
  • Similar length and structure
  • Avoid absolute words
  • Listed in a logical order
  • Distracters should be plausible, can use cliché, use partial answers.
  • Group items by type
  • Sort items by increasing difficulty
  • Add instructions
  • Review layout and pagination
  • Write answer key
  • Wait to grade – and all at once (or same conditions).
  • Item Analysis of test questions
  • Review poorly answers questions
  • Do you see a problem for tech?
    • What about performance testing?!
  • Do you see a problem for tech?
    • What about performance testing?!
  • Tests… yes… but what’s more important is performance, so…
  • Assignments/projects
    • BUT HOW do you fairly grade a website, a woods project, and invention?

Teaching for Success cont.

  • What is a rubric?
    • How is it related to “grades?”
  • What are grades?
    • What are the different forms of assessment?


  • Scoring tool or guide that lists the specific criteria and the ranges for multiple levels of achievement for a piece of work or performance.
    • A rubric consists of a set of well-defined factors and criteria describing the dimensions of an assignment to be assessed or evaluated.

Teaching for Success cont.

  • So…
    • Do you need rubrics?
    • How do you write solid rubrics?
      • Is it possible to have a 100% perfect rubric?
    • How do you write solid exams?
    • How do you as a teacher ensure and adequately measure student learning?

Rubrics: benefits

  • Communicates the instructor’s expectations
  • Streamlines the process for feedback to the student
  • Facilitates equitable grading
  • Standardizes assessment across different instructors

Rubrics: how to

  • Parts:
    • Scale (columns)
    • Dimensions (rows)
      • Components or outcomes of the assignment
    • Criteria descriptions (cells)
    • Assign points
    • http://www.uen.org/Rubric/browse.cgi

Rubric Activity

  • Split into groups of 3-4
  • Determine team roles
  • Select an assignment that needs a rubric
    • Can be a specific assignment, such as a research paper for ENG 102
    • Can be of a more general nature such as a class presentation

Rubric Activity Outline

  • Step 1: Identify Components
    • List 5 major objectives/outcomes of the assignment
      • Write these items as the row headers of the sheet provided

Step 2: Determine a Scale

    • Aim for 3-5 levels
    • Can use an odd or even number of items
    • Write these as column headings on the sheet provided
      • Outstanding | Accomplished | Proficient | Developing | Beginning
      • Accomplished | Average | Developing | Beginning
      • Excellent | Good | Needs Improvement | Unsatisfactory

Step 3: Add Criteria

  • Create descriptions for each level of performance for each criteria in the cells of the rubric
    • Bullet points
    • Paragraphs
  • Write these criteria in the cells of the sheet provided

Step 4: Assign Points

  • Assign points for each level of performance
  • Can use either of the following:
    • Discrete values (5, 4, 3, 2, 1)
    • Ranges (10-9) for each level
  • Indicate the point value on the sheet provided
    • Normally placed with the scale

Step 5: Set Component Weights

  • Allows for different levels of importance
    • Spelling/grammar – more or less important than content?
  • Determine if weights are necessary for your rubric
  • Assign weights accordingly

Step 6: Trade, Evaluate, and Discuss

  • With another group, trade, read through, evaluate, and then discuss strengths and weaknesses.

Teaching for Success cont.

  • What are grades?
    • What do they represent?
    • Is there such a thing as a fair grade?
    • How does one mix alpha (or letter based grades) with numeric rating/ scale systems?
    • What are some of the problems with grades and grading systems?
    • What are some of the grading systems out there?


  • Standardized measurements of varying levels of comprehension within a subject area.

Test, Grades, and Rubric Issues

  • Reliability
    • “the likelihood that a given measurement procedure will yield the same description of a given phenomena if the measurement is repeated.”
  • Validity (requires reliability, needs to cover all outcomes)
    • “the extent to which a specific measurement provides data that relate to commonly accepted meanings of a particular concept.”
  • Babbie, 1986

Teaching for Success cont.

  • What about state testing and standardized testing?
    • What’s my role (certainly as a TTE teacher)?

Teaching for Success cont.

  • Objective:
    • Do: “Assessment for Learning.”
    • What’s this mean?
    • How do we do it?
    • What are the key attributes?
    • Ultimately you have to give a grade for this - what will this “grade” be?
      • (*Grades are important, but when mathematically flawed, unfair, ineffective - unrelated to student achievement/ learning - then there are grading issues.)

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