Genre Mrs. Singleton



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Genre

Do Now

  • Correct the following sentences
    • the pilot had no alternative, stowaways must face judgment
    • did the nasa pilot exaust everyone of his options
    • barton’s ship lurched, slowed and suddenly accelerated again
    • in 1954, when the short story The Cold Equation were written, no people had yet went into outer space

Genre Defined

  • Genre is the category that a work of literature is classified under.
  • There are five major genres in literature:
    • Fiction is literary work whose content is produced by the imagination and is not necessarily based on fact.
    • Nonfiction is prose writing that deals with real people, things, events, and places.
    • Poetry is a type of rhythmic, compressed language that uses figures of speech and imagery to appeal to the reader’s emotions and imagination
    • Dramas are stories that are written to be acted for an audience
    • Folklore is the anonymous traditional story originally passed down orally from generation to generation.

Fiction

  • There are four main types of fiction:
    • Realistic fiction
    • Historical fiction
    • Fantasy
    • Science fiction

Forms of fiction

  • Fiction can come in two forms:
    • Short Stories-short piece of narrative fiction.
      • Can be read in one sitting
      • Information is relevant to the tale being told.
      • Tries to leave behind a single impression or effect
      • Writers depend on the reader bringing personal experiences and prior knowledge to the story.
    • Novels-long fictional, prose narrative, usually of more than fifty thousand words.

Types of Fiction

  • Realistic Fiction
  • Seems like real life
  • Could happen in today’s world
  • Situations are true to life or could be true
  • Includes adventure stories, mysteries, and humorous stories.
  • Historical Fiction
  • Set in the past
  • Based on real people and/or events

Types of Fiction

  • Fantasy
  • Has monsters, magic, or characters with superpowers
  • Science Fiction
  • Has aliens, robots, futuristic technology, and/or space ships

Which Genre am I?

  • Story of Alfred Bulltop Stormalong by unknown: Stormalong was said to be a sailor and a giant, some 30 feet tall; he was the master of a huge clipper ship known in various sources as either the Courser or the Tuscarora, a ship so tall that it had hinged masts to avoid catching on the moon.
  • The Endurance: Shackleton`s Legendary Antarctic Expedition by Caroline Alexander: Photos and first person accounts describe Shackleton's 1914 expedition to Antarctica in this companion volume to a museum exhibit.

Which genre am I?

  • The House of the Scorpion by Nancy Farmer: Humans and clones populate a corrupt drug empire located between the United States and Mexico in this futuristic thriller.
  • Anna of Byzantium by Tracy Barrett: In the eleventh century, the teenage princess Anna Comnena fights for her birthright--the throne to the Byzantine Empire--which she fears will be taken from her by her younger brother, John.

Do Now:

  • Correct the following sentences:

Critical Thinking

  • Think of one of your favorite movies and write down the storyline. What happens in the very beginning of the film? What do you learn at the beginning? What starts to happen next? Are there certain problems the main character faces? What is the highest point of action or tension in the movie? What happens after? How does it end? Is the main character better or worse off than he/she was at the beginning? How has he/she changed?

Elements of Fiction

  • Literary elements- characteristics of texts often see in nonfictional and fictional stories and poetry.
  • Elements of fiction
    • Character- Who is in the story?
    • Conflict- What is the character’s problem?
    • Plot- What happens in the story?
    • Setting- Where does the story take place? What is the mood of the story?
    • Point of view-Who is telling the story? How much does the narrator know?
    • Theme- How can we express the central meaning of the story in a complete sentence?
  • Character + Conflict + Plot + Setting + Point of View = THEME

Conflict

  • Conflict is the struggle, or problem, that a character faces.
  • Can be internal- between two opposing forces within the character; or can be external- between the character and an outside force.
  • Internal conflict
      • Man vs. Self
  • External conflict
    • Man vs. Man
    • Man vs. Nature, Society, Machines, or the Supernatural

Plot

  • Most stories follow a basic dramatic structure. Project Freytag’s Pyramid. Gustav Freytag analyzed Greek and Shakespearean drama and noticed a pattern in the way the stories were told. He viewed the dramatic structure as a pyramid or triangle, and we can apply this dramatic structure to many stories, novels and films.

Plot Analysis

  • Exposition is background information, which prepares for the next step in the story.
  • Rising action introduces and develops the major conflict in the story.
  • Climax can be the turning point of a story, or it can be the point of most intense feeling or excitement.
  • Falling action contains events or actions that occur after the climax.
  • Resolution is the point at which conflict is resolved. It is the final outcome of the conflict.

Do Now

  • Correct the following sentences:
    • a strongly, detailed, precise, setting effects the reader’s emotions
    • Boys and Girls is a short story that is setted in tough brutally hard ranch country in canada
    • floras the horses name Keisha sayed but whats the protagonists name
    • flora runned out the gate but the men catched her anyways

Assignment

  • Create a foldable detailing each plot element for the short story, Contents of a Dead Man’s Pocket.

Do Now

  • Correct the following sentences:
    • alice has never wrote no novels and don’t think she never will
    • that is the most coldest milk of the world
    • alice walker who was the most young of 8 children is born in Eatonton Georgia
    • walker’s novel The Color Purple was winning the pulitzer prize in fiction in 1983

Setting, Tone, Mood, Atmosphere

  • Setting is the background for the action of the story (i.e, part of exposition).
    • Includes time when story occurs
    • Also includes the place where the story happens
    • May also include general surroundings (i.e, daily habits of characters, jobs, social activities)
  • Mood- the feeling created within the writer
  • Tone-the writer’s attitude toward a subject
      • Shown through word choice (positive vs. negative descriptions)
  • Atmosphere-determined by setting, mood, and tone.
    • Word choice, attitude, and descriptions, combined with the reader’s emotions create atmosphere.

Setting, Mood, Tone, Atmosphere Practice 1

  • Excerpt from 20,000 Leagues Under The Sea
  • When I got up, I saw that Captain Nemo and his first mate were on the platform. They were examining the ship’s position, exchanging several words in their incomprehensible language.
  • Here was our situation. Two miles to starboard rose Gueboroar Island, whose coast extended from north to west like an immense arm. Toward the south and east, we could already make out the tops of several coral formations which the ebb tide was beginning to uncover. We had gone aground at high tide, which would make it difficult to refloat the Nauti-lus. Nevertheless the ship had suffered no damage, for her hull was sol-idly joined. But even though it could never sink or spring a leak, there was a serious danger of its remaining grounded forever on these reefs, and that would be the end of Captain Nemo’s submarine.
  • I was thinking of all this when the captain came over looking as cool and calm as ever. He seemed neither disturbed or unhappy. “An accident?” I asked. “No, an incident,” he replied.
  • “But an incident,” I retorted, “that will force you once again to live on that land you have been fleeing!”
  • Captain Nemo looked at me curiously and made a gesture, as if to say that nothing would force him to set foot on land again.

Practice 1 Questions

  • On a sheet of paper, answer the practice 1 questions on page 42.
  • ONLY write the letter of the correct answer.
  • Put the paper with your responses to the side.

Do Now

  • Correct the following sentences:
    • where’s you’re sister at Larry
    • unfortunately I have a sister whose a lot like Dee
    • john steinbeck almost didn’t except the nobel prize, he was afraid that he wouldn’t wright any more
    • during the great depression of the 1930s many families in the midwest losed their farms

Group Activity

  • Turn to page 172.
  • Read “The Pedestrian” by Ray Bradbury.
  • As a group, answer the Reading Check questions.
  • Then, on another sheet, make a sketch model of the set if “The Pedestrian” is turned into a play. Use Bradbury’s descriptions as the basis for your design.

Do Now

  • Write a brief response (5 sentence) response to the question, “In what ways is there a tension between equality and opportunity in our nation today?”

Characterization

  • Characters: the story’s actors.
  • Created when writers reveal characters’ TRAITS or special qualities
  • Traits are revealed either directly or indirectly.
  • Motivations: why a characters acts as he/she does.

Direct vs. Indirect

  • Indirect Characterization
  • Revealed through
    • Character’s appearance.
    • Dialogue (character and another character)
    • Private thoughts (character’s mind)-especially important when character is the narrator
    • Actions
    • Effects (of character’s actions on another)
  • Direct Characterization
  • Writer tells exactly what the character is like.
  • Flat characters: two-dimensional, with only one or two key personality traits.
  • Round character: three-dimensional qualities of a real-life person, with many traits and complexities.
  • Stock character: fits preconceived notions about a “type.”

Do Now

  • Correct the following sentences;
    • i cant believe it the banker said how can you think money is more important than time
    • id be happy the lawyer said to give up time for money
    • grandma tell us that story again the children clamored
    • tell us the story about the boy with no last name who you dance with that night they pleaded

Writing Process

  • 5 stages
    • Prewriting: brainstorm ideas and organize topic
    • Drafting: create a rough copy
    • Revising: improve your writing
    • Editing: proofread your work
    • Publishing: create a clean final copy

Assignment

  • Assignment: In an essay, compose a character sketch of any character from the stories we’ve read (“The Bass, the River, and Sheila Mant”; “The Pedestrian”; “Everyday Use.”
  •  
  • Standards:
    • The essay must be a minimum of three paragraphs.
    • The essay must include details of the character’s physical appearance, background, behavior, attitude.

Requirements

  • Must be printed in blue or black ink.
  • Skip every other line.
  • Do NOT write on the back of the page.
  • Each paragraph must have at least eight (8) sentences.
  • Rough draft must be completed prior to leaving the class.
  • Final copy will be due on Monday.

Do Now

  • Correct the following sentences:
    • because the daughter didnt think of herself as a prodigy her mother gets angry with her
    • the daughter thought her mother was trying to make her something she wasnt her mother just thinks the child is being disobedient
    • ray bradburys futuristic character in the short story the pedestrian is dismayed by his societies indifference
    • everybody seems to be more interested in watching telavision then in exploring their environment

Theme

  • Theme is the underlying message of a written work that usually reflects a certain outlook on life.
  • NOT directly stated.
  • Gradually implied or revealed throughout the story.

Finding Theme

  • Read the entire passage
  • Think about the deeper meaning it portrays
  • Try to sum up that message in one sentence
  • Make sure the message you choose fits the ENTIRE passage, not just one part.

Let’s Practice

  • The youth gave a shriek as he confronted the thing. He was for moments turned to stone before it. He remained staring into the liquid-looking eyes. The dead man and the living man exchanged a long look. Then the youth cautiously put one hand behind him and brought it against a tree. Leaning upon this he retreated, step by step, with his face still toward the thing. He feared that if he turned his back the body might spring up and stealthily pursue him.
  • (From The Red Badge of Courage)

Practice

  • Which of the following is the best theme for the passage
    • The living and the dead form bonds of love
    • Death should not be feared
    • Never speak badly about the dead
    • Confronting death can be terrifying

Now your turn

Today’s activity

  • Read “Two Kinds” by Amy Tan
    • Vocabulary
      • Prodigy
      • Lamented
      • Listlessly
      • Mesmerizing
      • Discordant
      • Dawdled
      • Stricken
      • Fiasco
      • Nonchalantly
      • betrayal

After Reading

  • Answer the reading check questions
  • Create a word map for each Word Bank Item

Do Now:

  • Concept chart
  • Legend: (+)=know; (*)=familiar with; (-)=do not know
  • Word
  • Knowledge Level
  • Lottery
  • Boisterous
  • Profusely
  • Liberty
  • Paraphernalia
  • Recital
  • Interminably
  • Petulantly

Irony

  • Irony is a contrast between what is said or done and what is really intended to be said or done.
    • Verbal irony: contrast or difference between what is said and what is meant
    • Situational irony: contrast between what is believed is going to happen and what really does happen
    • Dramatic irony: created when the audience knows something that one or more of the characters in the story does not.
    • Sarcasm: statement that is delivered as praise but intended to insult.

Lottery

  • What do you typically think of when you hear the word “lottery?”

Shirley Jackson’s “The Lottery”

  • http://town.hall.org/radio/HarperAudio/022294_harp_01_ITH.au
  • http://town.hall.org/radio/HarperAudio/022294_harp_02_ITH.au

Group Questions

  • What are two symbols in the story?
  • What are five examples showing that men possess the most power?
  • What are two examples of foreshadowing?

Irony in the story

Possible themes

Assignment

  • In 100-150 words, explain the theme of “The Lottery.” Include details on how Jackson uses irony to develop the theme.

HOMEWORK

  • Biography of Anne Hutchinson
  • Anne Hutchinson (1591–1643) was a Puritan woman, spiritual adviser, mother of 15, and important participant in the Antinomian Controversy that shook the infant Massachusetts Bay Colony from 1636 to 1638. Her strong religious convictions were at odds with the established Puritan clergy in the Boston area, and her popularity and charisma helped create a theological schism that threatened to destroy the Puritans' religious experiment in New England. She was eventually tried and convicted, then banished from the colony with many of her supporters.
  • Assignment: In a 100-150 word composition, compare and contrast Anne Hutchinson with Tess Hutchinson. Use examples from the story and the biography.

Nonfiction

  • Nonfiction is prose writing that deals with real people, things, events, and places.
  • Types of nonfiction
    • Biography
    • Autobiography
    • Essays
    • Newspaper stories
    • Magazine articles
    • Historical accounts
    • Scientific reports
    • Personal diaries/letters

Types of Nonfiction

  • Autobiography
  • Latin Roots
    • Auto: self
    • Bio: life
    • Graphy: writing
  • Life story written by oneself
  • Biography
  • Latin Roots
    • Bio: life
    • Graphy: writing
  • Writing about someone else’s life.

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