Essay. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper



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ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.

1) Based on your knowledge of an older friend or family member, compare and contrast disengagement and activity theories. Which best fits your perceptions and why?


MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

2) Disengagement theory is based on the ________ perspective. 2) _______

A) interactionist B) conflict

C) feminist D) functionalist


TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false.

3) The number of AIDS cases among older people has risen faster than rates among other age groups. 3) _______


MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

4) Older persons : 4) _______

A) are targets of other, non-violent crimes.

B) fear violent crimes more than younger persons.

C) are less likely to be victims of violent crimes.

D) All of these are accurate.


TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false.

5) According to the text, women and men don't always experience middle age in a similar manner. 5) _______


MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

6) In regard to problems associated with age-based stereotypes: 6) _______

A) stereotypes overplay positive traits of the elderly.

B) stereotypes avoid derogatory remarks about people's age, race, gender, or sexual orientation because everyone has a constitutional right to freedom of speech.

C) stereotypes only apply to the elderly.

D) there are more stereotypes about physical and mental abilities of the elderly than other age categories.


7) Sociologists refer to inequalities, differences, segregation, or conflict between age groups as: 7) _______

A) age discrimination. B) the generation gap.

C) the graying of America. D) age stratification.
8) The perspective that suggests that older people want to be released from societal expectations as they grow older is known as ________ theory. 8) _______

A) disengagement B) activity

C) conflict D) retirement
9) All of the following statements regarding age-based discrimination in the workplace are correct, except: 9) _______

A) Downgrading the job descriptions of older workers often constitutes a form of workplace discrimination.

B) Many workers prefer older workers over younger workers because they have more experience and greater maturity in the workplace.

C) Younger workers often are paid lower wages than older workers for fulfilling essentially the same work-related duties.

D) The Age Discrimination in Employment Act was passed to protect workers age 45 and above from unfair employment practices based on age.
ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.

10) Based on functionalist, conflict, and interactionist perspectives, explain how age-based inequality might be reduced.


MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

11) Wrinkles, gray hair, and other signs of the aging process that occurs in middle age are known as: 11) ______

A) primary aging. B) senescence.

C) tertiary aging. D) secondary aging.


12) All of the following statements regarding living arrangements for older people are correct, except: 12) ______

A) Older women are more likely to live alone than older men.

B) Housing patterns among older persons differ widely based on income level and previous standard of living.

C) More older people than younger people reside in homes they own free and clear of debt.

D) Most older people live in long-term care facilities.
13) Which of the following statements most accurately describes later maturity in the United States? 13) ______

A) Many people in later maturity find themselves caring for people of their own age and older individuals, especially their elderly parents.

B) This stage of the life course does not differ dramatically from middle age.

C) Old age is considered to begin in this stage of the life course.

D) None of these statements accurately describes later maturity.
TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false.

14) Elisabeth Kbler-Ross developed the 'dying trajectory' approach to death and dying. 14) ______


MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

15) All of the following statements regarding health and illness are correct, except: 15) ______

A) The leading killer of persons age 65 and older is heart disease.

B) African American women are more likely than white women to die from a stroke or diabetes.

C) Among white women, cancer has overtaken heart disease as the leading cause of death.

D) Persons age 65 and over account for about 30 percent (one-third) of all dollars spent on health care in the United States.


TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false.

16) Many sociologists believe that elder abuse goes underreported because victims are afraid or ashamed to report their victimization. 16) ______


MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

17) The term ________ describes misconceptions and myths that lead to age-based discrimination and was introduced by sociologist Robert Butler. 17) ______

A) ageist B) ageism C) elder abuse D) elderism
TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false.

18) Ageism has diminished in the United States through media presentations that have brought a greater awareness of the talents and capabilities of older persons. 18) ______


19) Social gerontology does not focus on the biological and physical aspects of aging. 19) ______
MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

20) All of the following statements are correct regarding childhood and adolescence, except: 20) ______

A) Children are among the most vulnerable to problems such as violence in the family.

B) Adolescents typically are not treated as children, but they do not have all of the "rights" that adults possess.

C) Historically, most societies have distinguished between childhood and adolescence in the life course.

D) In the past, children were believed to be the property of their parents.


TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false.

21) Legislation intended to protect individuals from employment discrimination based on age is called the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967. 21) ______


MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

22) All of the following statements are correct regarding hospices, except: 22) ______

A) The hospice movement is primarily a philosophy that affirms life, not death.

B) Hospices make it possible for more terminally ill persons to maintain control over the dying process.

C) Holistic and continuing care to the family, as well as to the patient, is a key feature of hospices.

D) Most hospices are semi-medical facilities-such as AIDS-care facilities-in which terminally ill people spend their final days of life.


23) Life expectancy in the United States: 23) ______

A) has increased dramatically during the twentieth century.

B) is approximately 77 years of age.

C) may reach as much as 82 years by 2050.

D) Both a and c are correct.
TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false.

24) The conflict perspective assumes that aging itself is a social problem. 24) ______


25) The line between childhood and adolescence first came into existence in 1776, when the United States was officially founded. 25) ______
MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

26) According to sociologist William C. Levin's research on how college students view older persons: 26) ______

A) found that the media have a major impact on younger people's attitudes toward the elderly.

B) when looking at photos of older-appearing men, most students believed that they were less intelligent and reliable than younger-appearing ones.

C) students whose grandparents are still living have a better attitude toward older persons than those whose grandparents are deceased.

D) All of these are accurate.


ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.

27) Describe how the problems of older adults differ from those of younger people. Explain how government programs have sought to reduce some of the problems associated with growing older in the United States. Note how these programs may change in the future.


28) Discuss some of the major problems experienced by infants, children, and adolescents in the United States. How can these problems be reduced? What role, if any, should the city, state, and federal government play in seeking to alleviate these problems?
MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

29) According to interactionist perspectives on aging and inequality: 29) ______

A) class constitutes a structural barrier to older people's access to valued resources in society.

B) older people want to be released from societal expectations and they continue to be productive and competitive.

C) older persons who are active are happier and better adjusted than less-active older persons.

D) disengagement is functional for society and for older persons.


30) All of the following statements regarding reducing age-based inequality are correct, except: 30) ______

A) Functionalists suggest that change must occur in families and other social institutions to reduce problems associated with aging.

B) Advocates of productive aging think that national policies and attitudes should be changed so that the young and the old are not pitted against each other in a struggle for scarce resources.

C) Conflict theorists believe young people need to save more of their income so that they can rely more upon themselves for their retirement and old age.

D) Technology may reduce some problems faced by older persons, particularly those in middle- and upper-income categories.
ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.

31) Identify the three explanations that have been given for how people cope with dying. What other approaches can you suggest for coping with death and dying? Explain your answer.


MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

32) Among most African Americans and Latinos/as, the retirement process is: 32) ______

A) different because prior racial discrimination in the workplace has diminished the opportunities for minority group members to invest in pension plans or save large sums of money toward retirement.

B) similar for both women and men over age 65.

C) extremely limited because few have any pension plan or receive Social Security or other retirement benefits.

D) virtually identical to that of white/Anglo retirees.


33) The study of the life course primarily involves: 33) ______

A) developmental processes in infancy and childhood.

B) an examination of the age-based categories through which people pass as they grow older.

C) the biological, physical, and social aspects of being old.

D) All of these are accurate.
TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false.

34) Older people are more likely to be victims of violent crime than persons in other age categories. 34) ______


MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

35) According to social gerontologists, the primary reason most people deny they are aging is because they: 35) ______

A) do not feel "old."

B) do not want their friends and children to think of them as "old."

C) deny many things in life.

D) associate old age with death and want to deny its reality.


36) Which of the following statements is correct regarding government-funded health care for older persons in the United States? 36) ______

A) Medicaid provides wide-scale coverage for older people that gives them unrestricted amounts of skilled nursing care and home health services.

B) Medicare is a welfare program in which recipients of benefits often have not paid anything to be covered.

C) Medicare is an entitlement program in which recipients of benefits have paid something in order to be covered.

D) All of these are accurate.
37) Based on the conflict perspective on aging and inequality, we can infer that: 37) ______

A) abolishing the capitalist system would reduce age-based inequalities in the United States.

B) doing away with compulsory retirement would reduce income inequality typically experienced by older people.

C) there should no longer be required roles for older people in industrialized, urbanized societies, thus providing them with greater opportunities to enjoy retirement.

D) ending costly government programs such as Social Security and Medicare would benefit not only younger workers but older people as well.
TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false.

38) Approximately 5 percent of older people live in an institution. 38) ______


39) Despite child-labor laws, many adolescents work longer than the allowable number of hours per day, and many are employed in hazardous working conditions. 39) ______
40) Due to a general lack of affordable housing some older people live on the streets for many years because they were displaced from low-income housing. 40) ______
MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

41) All of the following statements regarding ageism are correct, except: 41) ______

A) Ageism is directly associated with age-based discrimination.

B) Ageism is prejudice and discrimination against people on the basis of age.

C) Most research on ageism focuses on the negative and differential impact ageism has on older persons.

D) Through laws establishing the minimum age for driving or purchasing alcoholic beverages, ageism affects children and young people more than it does older adults.


TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false.

42) Organizations that provide homelike or home based care for the terminally ill are referred to as hospices. 42) ______


43) Life expectancy is the average number of years Americans live minus the number of years spent ill during one's lifetime. 43) ______
MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

44) The stage-based approach for explaining how people cope with the process of dying was introduced by: 44) ______

A) William C. Levin. B) Elisabeth Kbler-Ross.

C) Robert Butler. D) Studs Terkel.


45) In regard to compulsory school attendance laws, the text notes that these laws: 45) ______

A) are most beneficial for teenagers living in poverty because the laws discourage parents from insisting that young people get jobs to help support the family.

B) may be viewed as a form of discrimination against young people.

C) are unnecessary in most states because students generally believe attending school will provide future job opportunities they otherwise might not have.



D) All of these are accurate.

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