Errors of punctuation transfer in english compositions by english learners academic year (2013) english department in fkip uhn pematangsiantar bertaria Sohnata Hutauruk Program Studi Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris Universitas hkbp nommensen



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ERRORS OF PUNCTUATION TRANSFER IN ENGLISH COMPOSITIONS BY ENGLISH LEARNERS ACADEMIC YEAR (2013) ENGLISH DEPARTMENT IN FKIP UHN PEMATANGSIANTAR

Bertaria Sohnata Hutauruk

Program Studi Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris

Universitas HKBP Nommensen
This research is an analysis of the errors that made by the English learners of academic year (2013) at FKIP UHN Pematangsiantar in using punctuation marks in writing. Punctuation is a large part of system of conventions the function of which is to assist the written language in indicating those elements of speech which cannot be conveniently set down on paper: chiefly pause, pitch, and stress. From the background of this research, the writer formulated a question as a problem, that is: what are the types of interference errors of punctuations found in the English compositions by the academic year (2013) semester V at English Department in FKIP UHN Pematangsiantar? To discuss the problem, the writer uses theories of Markwardt (1990), Ritter (2002), Edward (2001), Swan (1980), Marcella Frank (1972), and Tregidgo (1949). Norrish (1983:7) says that error is systematic deviation from the accepted system of the target language. Punctuation exists to clarify meanings in the written word (Ritter, 2002:113). The lack of punctuation is likely to cause great strain for the reader and lower marks for the students. It has some kinds of marks. In the methodology, the writer uses the qualitative research to solve the problem, which is focused on the process. In getting data, the writer explains about punctuation marks and their usage. After that the writer makes a test to know whether the students understand or not. The writer gives a text without punctuation. Here, the writer will find out the errors that made by the students and make the correct one. The writer found the research findings, that is the common errors that made by the students are the using capitalization and quotation marks. And then followed by the using of full stop, comma, question marks and the last is quotation mark. There are forty students’ writing used as the subject of the research.


  1. INTRODUCTION


English learners often make errors in writing English, especially when they use punctuation. Ungrammatical sentences have great influence when the learners are writing sentences. There are many kinds of errors arise when the learners write because they do not master the English structure well. Learning English as a foreign language cannot be separated from the errors because the mother tongue has a lot differences from the target language. Error analysis is investigation of learners’ errors which are not systematic in any simple way. Error analysis indicates that learners construct their own rules on the basis of input data, and in some instances at least rules differ from that target language. There are some classification of error, they are: referential errors, register errors, social errors and textual errors. Error can be an indicator of the learners’ stages in their target language development. Corner (1973:256) said that the majority of learners’ errors linguistically quite different from those made by a native speaker. This is why the students make errors and if the teachers don’t give them correction, they will make errors continuously. Errors are resulting from lack of knowledge of the rule of English. In learning a second language, the students as the learner produce many errors misformation of a foreign language. The word error is commonly used when the students give the wrong answer or respond. Errors may occur in all components of language such as grammar. The learners sometimes do not realize that they make mistake because of ignorance of the grammar. Richards (1985:96) says that errors result from incomplete learning and knowledge of learners about target language system. Norrish (1983:7) says that error is systematic deviation from the accepted system of the target language. Mistake is non-systematic deviation from the accepted system of a language being learned and it usually due to human limitation such as tiredness, nervousness, and fatigue. It means that errors may occur because of human factor in mastering the target language such as the limitation of memory, psychological problem and do not understand about the material of subject. In another side, the learners never recognize their errors or they never know that they have made errors. Brown (2000:218) says that the errors can be observed, analyzed, and classified to reveal something of the system operating within the learner, led to a surge of study of learners’ errors, called error analysis. Corder (1981:23) says that error analysis is the study analysis of the errors made by the second of foreign language learners to predict the errors or the difficulties in learning foreign language. From the definition above, the writer conclude that error is the incomplete though of learner in understanding the target language. Lindaman (1989:11) says that “writing is a process of communication that use graphic symbol in conventional system in order to convey message to the reader”. In conveying experience and knowledge, english learners prove their ability in written form. It can be proved that there are errors to raise up even in choosing appropriate words, grammar and so on which are related in writing. English learners must be able to master the four skills, they are: listening, speaking, reading, and writing, also English components such as: grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation, punctuation, etc. It requires demonstrating the control of a number of variables simultaneously: they are control of content, format, sentence structure, vocabulary, punctuation, spelling, etc. Hartog (1986:24) said that there are there aims of writing (1) to enable the thought, (2) to explore and elaborate these thought, (3) to develop their thinking to convey to other people the result of their thinking, (4) to convey to other people the result of their thinking as clearly and completely as possible. Writing is an important aspect of language learning. Having writing skills are useful for human being to make good and smooth communication. In academic life writing skill has a special importance as it is an active skill in evaluating the actual language competence of language learners.

This research focuses on the errors of English learners on the Third Year students in written English. It can be observed that most of the students of English as a foreign language find it difficult to express in written form. They frequently made interference errors in their compositions. Lecturers find it difficult to teach writing because it seems so complex, and they are frequently discouraged about the result they achieve. Based on the background above, the problem of this research can be formulated as follows. First in the terms of linguistic category and the surface strategy taxonomy, what are the types of interference errors of punctuations found in the English compositions by the acdemic year (2013) semester V at English Department in FKIP UHN Pematangsiantar? The objective of the research is to find out the types of interference errors of puntuations made by English learners academic year (2013) semester V at English Department in FKIP UHN Pematangsiantar.





  1. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1 Description of Error

The definition of error can be seen through the classification of errors. Richards (1985: 96) says that errors result from incomplete learning and knowledge of learners about target language system. Norrish (1983: 7) says that error is systematic deviation from the accepted system of the target language. Corder (1981: 23) says that error analysis is the study analysis of the errors made by the second of foreign language learners to predict the errors or the difficulties in learning foreign language. There is a problem in analyzing errors. It is how can those things are determined as errors or mistakes or how we can know those things are not just an accidental typing mistake. For that, it is a need to differentiate error and mistake. Ellis (1997:7) says that errors and mistakes are differentiated as errors reflect gaps in a learner’s knowledge that they occur because the learner does not know what is correct and mistakes reflect occasional lapses in performance that they occur because, in particular instance, the learner is unable to perform what a learner knows. It can be concluded that a learner makes errors due to their, in particular instance, lack of consciousness through the language knowledge.



2.2 Types of Error

According to James (1998: 106) errors can be classified into four types, they are: (1) Errors of omission is a sentence where an element is omitted, actually it should be presented. Example: I not go to school by bus everyday. It should be: I do not go to school by bus everyday.

(2)Errors of addition is a phenomenon in which a certain aspect of language rules is added into a correct order (correct sentence), in order words some elements are presented which should not be presented. Example: We do study English three times in a week. It should be: We study English three times in a week.

(3)Misformation is the error of using one grammatical form in the place of another grammatical form. Example: I doesn’t know him. It should be: I don’t know him.

(4)Misordering is a sentence which its order is incorrect. The sentence can be right in presented elements, but wrongly sequenced. Example: She not does come early to school. It should be: She doesn’t come early to school.

2.3 Errors in Students’ Writing

Talking about the students’ error in writing, according to Swales and Feak from www.sgs. utoronto. ca / english / coursedescriptions. asphttthe most common errors that the students make are grammatical errors, such as lack of maintaining subject – verb agreement, lack of mastering the use of verb tenses, using article errors, using relative clauses incorrectly, using direct and indirect questions ineffectively, using incorrect or vague pronoun references, and paying no attention to avoid punctuation errors, and so on.



The Use of

Incorrect / Error

Correct

Punctuation

I live. And go to school here.

Where do you work.



I live and go to school here.

Where do you work ?



Word Missing

I working in a restaurant.

I am working in a restaurant.

Capitalization

It is located at main and baker streets in the City.

It is located at Main and Baker Streets in the city.

Verb Tense

I never work as a cashier until I get a job there.

I had never worked as a cashier until I got a job there.

Subject – Verb Agreement

The manager work hard.

There is five employees.



The manager works hard.

There are five employees.



Make one Word or Sentence

Every one works hard.

We work together. So we have become friends.



Everyone works hard.

We work together, so we have become friends.



Spelling

The maneger is a woman.

The manager is a woman.

Plural

She treats her employees like slave.

She treats her employees like slaves.

Unnecessary Word

My boss she watches everyone all the time.

My boss watches everyone all the time.


2.3 Punctuation

Punctuation is a large part of system of conventions the function of which is to assist the written language in indicating those which cannot be conveniently set down on paper: chiefly pause, pitch, and stress (Markwardt, 1990:11). Punctuation exists to clarify meanings in the written word (Ritter, 2002:113). The lack of punctuation is likely to cause great strain for the reader and lower marks for the students. Punctuation is a set of standard marks and signs distinct from one another to separate words and sentences so as to make then clear and understandable. Good punctuation is crucial for successful academic writing. Many students’ essays use little punctuation beyond commas and full stops. But to be restricted to just two forms of punctuation mark, when writing your essay, is like building a house using only a hammer and a saw: you can do it; but not very well


2.4 Usage of Punctuation

Correct punctuation is essential for clear and effective writing. The following list contains some of the most critical punctuation rules.



  1. Full Stop/ Period (.)

The period (known as a full stop in British English) is probably the simplest of the punctuation marks to use. Full stop is used to mark the end of a sentence, or to indicate an abbreviation. Among all the punctuation marks, period comes to be one of the most frequently used. Because if we want to end a sentence than we use it. Sometimes it can also be referred as “dot”. It can be used in many ways such as:

At the end of a declarative sentence : I was born in Australia and now live in Indonesia

Abbreviations: I will be in between 6 a.m. and 7 p.m. Sometimes a single word can form the sentence. In this case you place a full stop after the word as you would in any other sentence.


  1. Question Mark (?)

A question mark is used at the end of a question. When enclosed in a parenthesis, it can also indicate that a writer is not sure about the correctness of his work like in spelling. Normally it is used when you are asking something from someone.

Using the question mark:

(1) At the end of all direct questions: What is your name?

(2)Do not use the question mark for reported questions: He asked me what my name was.



  1. Exclamation Mark (!)

Exclamation mark is used for:

  1. An exclamation mark is used at the end of a sentence and indicates surprise, anger, or alarm. Exclamation marks should be used very sparingly and are not often used in academic writing. For example: The police stormed in and arrested her!

  2. The exclamation mark is used to express exasperation, astonishment or surprise or to emphasize a comment or short, sharp phrase. For example:

Help! Help!

  1. Mark a phrase as humorous, ironic or sarcastic. For example: What a lovely day!

  2. Quotation Mark (“”)

Quotation marks (“”) are used in the following cases:

  1. To enclose direct quotes. If the quote is divided by the speaker tag, then separate sets of quotation marks must be used for each part of the quote. They must not enclose the speaker tag.

Nunan (1989:35) points out, “it has been argued that learning to write fluently and expressively is the most difficult of the macro skills for all language users regardless of whether the language in question is first, second or foreign language”

  1. To enclose titles of articles, songs, stories, or poems: “To Love You More”




  1. Place periods and commas inside quotation marks: Aida said, “Aaron has a blue shirt.

  2. Place semicolons and colons outside quotation marks: He calls me his "teddy bear"; I'm not a bear.

  3. Place question marks or exclamation points inside the quotation marks if they punctuate the quotation only: "Are we too late?" she asked.

  1. Semicolon (;)

A semi colon looks like a coma with a period on top of it. It can be used as a separator of two independent clauses in a sentence which eliminates the need of a comma and conjunction. It can also be used to separate items with punctuation in series. Semicolons (;) are strong punctuation marks, stronger than commas but not quite like periods. They are easy to use because they have only three uses:Between two short sentences

  1. In order to use a semicolon, the sentences must not only be short but also have an obvious connection in meaning: Anna loves figure skating; she hates hockey.

  2. Between two complete thoughts before a transition word or phrase

Bring your I.D. card; otherwise, you won’t be allowed in.

Subordinators (e.g. because, when) and coordinators (e.g. but, so) cannot be used with a semi-colon. See “Connectors: Usage and Meaning”.



  1. Between items in a list: Usually commas are used to separate items in a list. However, sometimes commas are needed within items in a list; in those cases, semicolons are used to separate the listed items.

  1. Colon (:)

A colon may be used in several ways:

  1. Between hours and minutes to indicate a time format: 9:00 A.M.

  2. To introduce a listing of items: Groceries: Milk Bread Cookies

  3. When mentioning a volume and page numbers, a colon is put between them: 200cc: page13

  4. After a greeting in a business letter: Gentlemen:Dear Ms. Garcia:

  5. When mentioning the chapter and verse numbers in the Bible: John 3:16

  1. Comma (,)

Commas are used to separate parts of a sentence. They tell readers to pause between words or groups of words, and they help clarify the meanings of sentences.

  1. Commas are used to separate three or more words, phrases, or clauses in a series: Practice will be held before school, in the afternoon, and at night.

  2. Commas are used after an introductory dependent clause (a group of words before the subject of a sentence that do not form a complete sentence).

If your friends enjoy Chinese food, they will love this restaurant.

  1. Commas are used to set off introductory words, introductory adverbial, participial, or infinitive phrases, and longer introductory prepositional phrases: Incidentally, I was not late this morning.

  2. Commas are used between independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so): My dog had fleas, so we gave him a bath.

  3. Commas set off nonessential phrases or clauses: The man, I think, had a funny laugh.

  4. Commas set off an appositive (a word or phrase that renames a noun).

Tanya, Debbie's sister, gave a brilliant speech last night.

  1. Use the comma in 'tag questions' : She lives in Paris, doesn't she?

  2. Use to mark off interjections: 'please', 'thank you', 'yes', and 'no'

  3. To separate street, city, and state when referring to an address

: Greg Durham has lived at 627 LaVista Road, Novato, CA, for three years.

(10) In writing date formats: On December 3, 2004, Lupe got her wish.



  1. Hyphen (-)

A hyphen joins two or more words together (e.g. x-ray, door-to-door). Hyphens are used to avoid confusion or ambiguity but today most words that have been hyphenated quite quickly drop the hyphen and become a single word (e.g. e-mail and email, now-a-days and nowadays). The usage:

1. Use a hyphen with compound numbers from twenty-one to ninety-nine. : fifty-one, eighty-nine, thirty-two, sixty-five, eighty-one. Ninety – nine.



2. In written fractions place a hyphen between the numerator and denominator. two-fifths, one-third, three-tenth, nine-hundredth

3.[Exception] if there is already a hyphen in either the numerator or the denominator, you omit the hyphen between the numerator and denominator. sixty-nine eighty-ninths (not 'sixty-nine-eighty-ninths'), twenty-two thirty-thirds



  1. Use a hyphen when the number forms part of an adjectival compound:

France has a 35-hour working week.

  1. There are some cases where hyphens preserve written clarity such as where there are letter collisions. (co-operate, bell-like) or where a prefix is added (anti-nuclear, post-colonial), or in family relations (great-grandmother, son-in-law.)

  1. Dashes (—),

The dash is a punctuation mark (-) which is used particularly to point out a break in the thought or structure of a sentence. A dash separates words into parenthetical statements (e.g. She was trapped - no escape was possible. Basically dash can be used in the following cases:

  1. Dashes can be used to add parenthetical statements in much the same way as you would use brackets. In formal writing you should use the bracket rather than the dash as a dash is considered less formal in most cases. However, they should not be overused nor used to replace commas although they can be used to create emphasis in a sentence. You may think she is a liar - she isn't.

  2. Out from the rest of the sentence.

Linda Simpson's prescription for the economy, lower interest rates, higher employment, and less government spending, was rejected by the president's administration. Become Linda Simpson's prescription for the economy—lower interest rates, higher employment, and less government spending—was rejected by the president's administration.

  1. The dash can also be used to attach material to the end of a sentence when there is a clear break in the continuity of the sentence or when an explanation is being introduced.

The president will be unable to win enough votes for another term of office—unless, of course, he can reduce unemployment and the deficit soon.

  1. Ellipsis (...)

An ellipsis consists of three full stops. It indicates that material has been left out of a quotation. When quoting, it is sometimes necessary to leave out words or lines for reasons of relevance or length. Using an ellipsis makes any omissions known to your reader. “But to be restricted to just two forms of punctuation mark ... is like building a house using only a hammer and a saw: you can do it; but not very well.

An ellipsis (…) is used in the following cases:



  1. When quoting, the crucial information the writer needs may be at the beginning and end of a sentence or, perhaps, only at the beginning of a quoted sentence. A writer will use ellipses to indicate that he or she has omitted unnecessary information.

  2. Ellipses omitting material in the middle of a sentence

  1. Brackets and Parentheses

The difference between a 'bracket' and a 'parentheses' can be a bit confusing. Generally, parentheses refers to round brackets () and brackets to square brackets []. However, we are more and more used to hearing these referred to simply as 'round brackets' or 'square brackets'. Usually we use square brackets - [ ] - for special purposes such as in technical manuals. Round brackets - ( ) -, or 'parentheses' are used in a similar way to commas when we want to add further explanation, an afterthought, or comment that is to do with our main line of thought but distinct from it. Many grammarians feel that the parentheses can, in fact, be replaced by commas in nearly all cases. Example : The government's education report (April 2005) shows that the level of literacy is rising in nearly all areas.

  1. Parentheses set off additions or expressions that are not necessary to the sentence. They tend to de-emphasize what they set off.

We visited several European countries (England, France, Spain) on our trip last year.

  1. Parentheses enclose figures within a sentence. Grades will be based on (1) participation, (2) in-class writing, and (3) exams.

  2. When the group inside the parentheses forms a complete sentence but is inserted inside a larger sentence, no period is needed. However, if a question mark or exclamation point is needed, it may be used.

The snow (she saw it as she passed the window) was now falling heavily.

  1. When parentheses are used to enclose an independent sentence, the end punctuation belongs inside the Parentheses.

Mandy told me she saw Amy’s new car. (I saw Amy’s car before Mandy.) She said it was a nice car.

12. Apostrophe (‘)

Apostrophes are used to show possession or to indicate where a letter has been omitted to form a contraction.



  1. To show possession, add an apostrophe and an -s to singular nouns or indefinite pronouns that end in one or body. Susan's wrench, anyone's problem

  2. Add only an apostrophe for plural possessive nouns ending in -s.

My parents' car, the musicians' instruments

  1. Add an apostrophe and an -s for plural possessive nouns that do not end in -s.

the men's department, my children's toys

  1. Add an apostrophe and an -s for singular possessive nouns that end in -s.

Chris's cookbook, the business's system

  1. Do not use an apostrophe with possessive personal pronouns.

yours, his, hers, its, ours, their, and whose.

  1. Apostrophes are also used in contractions, two words which have been combined into one, to mark where the missing letter or letters would be.

I am= I'm I have = I've

Avoid confusing it's with its. It's is a contraction for it is; its is a possessive pronoun.



  1. Capitalization (A/C).

Main uses:

  1. The first letters of titles are always capitalized.

Computer Crime: A Study of Security Systems and Technology the Journal of Marketing

  1. The first letters of qualifications are always capitalized. Diploma of Education

Master of Commerce

  1. The first letters of individual titles are capitalized. Mr, Ms, Mrs, Dr, Professor,

  2. The first letters of institutions are always capitalized. The University of Melbourne,

  3. A sentence within another sentence begins with a capital:She turned to him and said: ‘Go away!’

  4. The first letter of a country, state, province or territory is capitalized: Victoria, South States of America

  5. The first letters of a company are capitalized.Microsoft, Ford Motor Company

  6. The first letters of directions words are capitalized: South-East, North-West, Northern.

  7. The first letters of proper names are capitalized: John Smith, Richard Harris, David

  8. Periods of history are also capitalized.The Age of Reason

  1. Underlining or italics

An underline is in other words underscore. Generally it is one or more horizontal lines immediately below a portion of writing. Underline whether it is single or double was originally used in typewritten or hand written documents which main purpose was to make an emphasis on some important piece of the text: (1)Try to underline titles when you are writing long works / statements or academic papers, (2) Try to underline those foreign words which are not commonly used by you in everyday English
III. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

The subject of this research is English learners academic year (2013) on the third year at English Department in FKIP UHN Pematangsiantar. There are forty students will be used as the subject of the research. The object of this Research is punctuation that consists of: Full Stop/ period (.), Question Mark (?), Exclamation Mark (!), Quotation Mark (“”), Comma (,), Capitalization (A/C). In getting data, the writer explains about punctuation marks and their usage. After that the writer makes a test to know whether the students understand or not. The writer gives a text without punctuation. Here, the writer will find out the errors that made by the students and make the correct one. Qualitative analysis can be defined as an analysis aimed at recognizing and explaining the phenomena being analyzed.




  1. RESEARCH FINDING AND DISCUSSION


4.1 Research Findings

This study is aims to find out the type of errors in using punctuation on the students’ writing. After all the data has been analyzed, there are some important points found by the writer as follows: The errors occur in using capitalization, quotation marks, comma, full stop, closing quotation, and exclamation marks. For example:



<1> Suddenly, he saw a lamb drinking water at some distance down. the stream

Correct : Suddenly, he saw a lamb drinking water at some distance down the stream.

The student should put the full stop after stream, because as the writer has been learned that full stop needed in every the end of the sentence.

<2> seeing the tender lamb, the wolf’s mouth began to water.

Correct: Seeing the tender lamb, the wolf’s mouth began to water.

According to the rule of capitalization, that is the first letter of a sentence is always capitalized.

<3> the wolf thought what a delicious meal. the lamb would make I must catch and kill the lamb for my feast.

Correct: The wolf thought,” What a delicious meal the lamb would make! I must catch and kill the lamb for my feast.

When we begin our sentence, we should use capitalization. It is used in the first font that is one of the rules of using capitalization. The sentence is a quotation sentence but the student does not put the quotation correctly. The student should put the comma, after that the quotation marks, and followed by the capital.

<4> the wolf approached the lamb saying how dare you make my water dirty?

Correct: The wolf approached the lamb saying,” How dare you make my water dirty! From the error above, we can see that the student does not use the capital correctly. The first letter of a sentence is always capitalized. After that, put the quotation mark in that sentence because it is a quotation sentence. We should use the capital in the first font of the first word when quote a sentence. “How dare you make my water dirty” is one of exclamation sentence, so we should use an exclamation mark (!).



<5> The poor lamb answered,” no sir!” how can it be the stream is flowing down to me from your end. Correct: The poor lamb answered,” No sir. How can it be? The stream is flowing down to me from your end. In the sentence, we can see that the student does not use the capital after the quotation mark. There should be a full stop after sir. And then, we should use the capital in the first font of the first word when quote a sentence.

<6>The error: the wolf got angry and snarling said,” you are too arrogant to argue like this!” then why did you rebuke me the last month.

Correct: The wolf got angry and snarling said,” You are too arrogant to argue like this. Then, why did you rebuke me the last month?” From the error above, it is clear that the student does not use the capital in that sentence. When we begin our writing, we should use capital in the first font. And then, we can see that the student does not use the capital after the quotation mark. We should use the capital in the first font of the first word when quote a sentence. The word in sequence time like then, suddenly, once, should be capitalized and followed by a comma. “Why did you rebuke me the last month” is a question sentence, so it uses a question mark.



<7> the lamb said,” excuse me sir!” I was not even born last month I’m just ten days old.”

Correct: The lamb said,” Excuse me sir. I was not even born last month. I’m just ten days old.”

In the sentence, there are some errors. Every first letter is should be capitalized. The student does not use the capital after the quotation mark. We should use the capital in the first font of the first word when quote a sentence. There should be full stop after sir, and after month.

<8> the wolf replied,” well then it was your mother who rebuked and insulted me.” saying so

Correct: The wolf replied,” Well. Then, it was your mother who rebuked and insulted me saying so.” In that sentence, there should be a full stop after well and the capitalization. We should put comma after a sequence time “then” and use the capital in the beginning of the word. The closing quotation and the full stop should be put in the end of the sentence.




    1. Discussion

We know that Punctuation marks are the marks that used in writing. It has important part in writing. Without the punctuation marks, the reader will be confused and it will make the reader misunderstanding. Norrish (1983:7) says that error is systematic deviation from the accepted system of the target language. There is a problem in analyzing errors. It is how can those things are determined as errors or mistakes or how we can know those things are not just an accidental typing mistake. For that, it is a need to differentiate error and mistake. Ellis (1997:7) says that errors and mistakes are differentiated as errors reflect gaps in a learner’s knowledge that they occur because the learner does not know what is correct and mistakes reflect occasional lapses in performance that they occur because, in particular instance, the learner is unable to perform what a learner knows. It can be concluded that a learner makes errors due to their, in particular instance, lack of consciousness through the language knowledge. Markwardt (1990:11) stated that punctuation is a large part of system of conventions the function of which is to assist the written language in indicating those elements of speech which cannot be conveniently set down on paper: chiefly pause, pitch, and stress. Correct punctuation is essential for clear and effective writing. The lack of punctuation is likely to cause great strain for the reader and lower marks for the students.



V.CONCLUSION

The study of punctuation is very important to know the meaning of the sentence. A sentence without punctuation will make us misunderstanding. Richards (1985: 96) says that errors result from incomplete learning and knowledge of learners about target language system. The word error is commonly used when the students give the wrong answer or respond. Error may occur in all components of language such as grammar. The learners sometimes do not realize that they make mistake because of ignorance of the grammar. The learners never recognize their errors or they never know that they have made errors. Brown (2000: 218) says that the errors can be observed, analyzed, and classified to reveal something of the system operating within the learner, led to a surge of study of learners’ errors, called error analysis. The writer use Ritter’s theories to analyze the text. This analysis consists of Full stop, comma, capitalization, exclamation marks, question marks, and quotation marks. The students let to understand about the using of punctuation because punctuation marks are one of the important points in learning English. Finally, the writer concludes that Punctuation is very important to the writers so that the readers will understand to their writing.



REFERENCES
Brown, H.D., Principles of language Learning and Reading, London: Longman, 2000

Christ and J.C. Tseller, Heat Handbook of English, Boston: D.C Heath and Company, 1961

Corder, S.P., Error Analysis and Interlanguage, London: Oxford University Press, 1989

Edward, E. Wilson, Writing and Grammar Communication in Action, New York: Prentice Hall, Inc, 2001

Ellis, Rod, Second Language Acquisition, New York : Oxford University, 1997

Frank, Marcella, Modern English, a practical reference guide, New York: Prentice Hall, 1972

http://www.lc.unsw.edu.au.

http://www.thesiswritingservice.com/academic-papers-writing-guide/punctuation-rules/.

Norrish, John, Language Learners and Their Errors, London: Macmillan Education, 1983

Richard, C. J., Error Analysis, London: Longman, 1974

Sapir, Edward, Language, New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1949

Swan, Michael, Practical English Usage, New York: Oxford University Press, 1980



Tregidgo, P.S., Practical English Usage, London: Longman, 1959

www. sgs. utoronto. ca / english / coursedescriptions. Asphtt
Directory: portal
portal -> Handout on Essay Writing The Writing Process
portal -> Outline format I. Thesis Statement II. Topic Sentence (1st body) cd with citation III. Topic Sentence (2nd body) cd with citation IV. Ideas for your conclusion ou will be writing a 4-paragraph
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