Aztecs and Incas - controlled other tribes who were unhappy
- Spanish were able to make allies “Divide and Conquer”
Spanish- remove the imperial power and place themselves at the top of the political structure.
No large population of Spanish immigrants
Total control from Spain- Council of the Indies/Trade was strictly controlled by the mother country.
Mercantilism/Mercantilist- “the premise that national wealth and power were best served by increasing exports and collecting precious metals in return”
Gold and raw materials go to the mother country
Manufacture goods go to colony-
All trade was supposed to go to the mother country first. (Smuggling was wide spread and prevalent)
Politics were controlled by the mother country.
Researcher Alfred Crosby- Book:
Crosby AW, The Columbian Exchange, Biological and Cultural Consequences of 1492. Greenwood Press: Westport, Conn., 1972.
1622 around Boston Bay the Indians "died on heapes, as they lay in their houses; and the living, that were able to shift for themselves, would runne away and let them dy, and let their Carkases ly above the ground without burial....And the bones and skulls upon the severall places of their habitations made such a spectacle after my coming into these partes, that as I travailed in the Forrest nere the Massachusetts, it seemed to me a new found Golgotha."
Hemispheric isolation ends and new goods and biological elements are introduced to both.
Veranzanno-(1524) Explored North Coast of North America-
Cartier- (1536) sailed up the St. Lawrence River, to Quebec then to Montreal-
La Salle- (1681) found and named the Mississippi and Louisiana, claimed for France:
Settled in the area of Quebec 1608, Montreal (1648) (Modern day eastern Canada)
Royal Licenses: King of France granted a Monopoly of trade
Champlain traveled South on the St. Lawrence River, established trading contacts with Hurons and Iroquois, established Montreal.
No large Plantation style settlements ie., with large populations, but trading settlements. French in North America generally have good relations with native Americans because they do not displace natives and settle to promote trade.
Beaver pelts/Fur Trade, fishing to Europe are the profitable enterprises.
Roman Catholic’s only allowed to settle in New France, Jesuits try to convert Indians.
Movie The Black Robe depicts the French in Canada at this time.
Later in the century, French explorers, Louis Jolliet and Jaques Marquette will explore the Mississippi.
Still later 1682, Robert Cavalier or the Sieur de La Salle, reach the Gulf of Mexico and claim the Mid West to France.
New Orleans is established by Pierre Le Moyne, 1699, thus the French have a presence in North America
Dutch In America
Dutch West India Company- wanted to find the Northwest Passage to India
Henry Hudson- (1609) explored what is now Hudson River in New York