Discovery and Early Colonization



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Discovery and Early Colonization

  • Compare and Contrast Spanish, French, and English Exploration and Colonization.

AP Outline

  • 1. Pre-Columbian Societies, America Before1600:
  • A. Early inhabitants of the Americas
  • B. American Indian empires in Mesoamerica, the Southwest, and the Mississippi Valley
  • C. American Indian cultures of North America at the time of European contact
  • 2. Transatlantic Encounters and Colonial Beginnings, 1492-1690
  • A. First European contacts with Native Americans
  • B. Spain's empire in North America
  • C. French colonization of Canada
  • D. English settlement of New England, the Mid-Atlantic region, and the South
  • E. From servitude to slavery in the Chesapeake region
  • F. Religious diversity in the American colonies
  • G. Resistance to colonial authority: Bacon's Rebellion, the Glorious Revolution, and the Pueblo Revolt

Possible: Essay Questions

  • Analyze the differences between the Spanish settlements in the Southwest and the English colonies in New England in the seventeenth century in terms of TWO of the following:
    • Politics
    • Religion
    • Economic development
  • “Geography was the primary factor in shaping the development of the British colonies in North America”
    • Assess the validity of this statement for the 1600’s.

Pre-Columbian America

  • Bearing Straights/Land Bridge
  • Hunters and Gathering people follow herds from Asia over the ice and into the Western Hemisphere.
  • Evidence of 50,000 year old bones found in South America

North American-Native Americans

  • Native Groups are Diverse
  • Mesoamerica: First Mayan then Aztecs, Incas
    • Large agriculture, large population, cities, imperial in nature, social stratification, Pre-historic (no writing) limited metal technology, polytheistic, theocratic, imperial
  • Atlantic Coast:
    • Hunter/Gatherer
    • Small groups/limited nomadic/some Agriculture, prehistoric, stone-age technology
  • "Did you detect something a little ominous in the way they said, 'See you later'?"

Exploration

  • Amerigo Vespucci- (1497-1499) cartographer, explored the coast of South America- identified it as a new continent,, publicized his views in books, new continent was became known as the Americas.
  • Ponce De Leon-(1513) Florida
  • Balboa-(1516) Panama and the Pacific Ocean
  • Magellan- Circumnavigated the world
  • Cabot-(1497) explored for the English, Newfoundland, looking for Northwest Passage, claimed Northern portion of North America for English

Exploration

Pattern of Conquest-

  • Technology- metal, armor, firearms, horses, disease- aide in compensating for outnumbered Spaniards
  • Native structure was imperial in nature-
    • Aztecs and Incas - controlled other tribes who were unhappy
    • - Spanish were able to make allies “Divide and Conquer”
  • Spanish- remove the imperial power and place themselves at the top of the political structure.

Spanish Colonization

  • No large population of Spanish immigrants
  • Total control from Spain- Council of the Indies/Trade was strictly controlled by the mother country.
  • Mercantilism/Mercantilist- “the premise that national wealth and power were best served by increasing exports and collecting precious metals in return”
    • Gold and raw materials go to the mother country
    • Manufacture goods go to colony-
  • All trade was supposed to go to the mother country first. (Smuggling was wide spread and prevalent)
  • Politics were controlled by the mother country.

Social Stratification

  • Social Stratification
    • Penninsulare
    • Criollo
    • Mestizo
    • Zambo
    • Indian

Columbian Exchange

  • Researcher Alfred Crosby- Book:
  • Crosby AW, The Columbian Exchange, Biological and Cultural Consequences of 1492. Greenwood Press: Westport, Conn., 1972.
  • 1622 around Boston Bay the Indians "died on heapes, as they lay in their houses; and the living, that were able to shift for themselves, would runne away and let them dy, and let their Carkases ly above the ground without burial....And the bones and skulls upon the severall places of their habitations made such a spectacle after my coming into these partes, that as I travailed in the Forrest nere the Massachusetts, it seemed to me a new found Golgotha."
  • Hemispheric isolation ends and new goods and biological elements are introduced to both.

French Exploration

  • Veranzanno-(1524) Explored North Coast of North America-
  • Cartier- (1536) sailed up the St. Lawrence River, to Quebec then to Montreal-
  • La Salle- (1681) found and named the Mississippi and Louisiana, claimed for France:

New France

  • Settled in the area of Quebec 1608, Montreal (1648) (Modern day eastern Canada)
  • Royal Licenses: King of France granted a Monopoly of trade
  • Champlain traveled South on the St. Lawrence River, established trading contacts with Hurons and Iroquois, established Montreal.
  • No large Plantation style settlements ie., with large populations, but trading settlements. French in North America generally have good relations with native Americans because they do not displace natives and settle to promote trade.

French Colonization

  • Beaver pelts/Fur Trade, fishing to Europe are the profitable enterprises.
  • Roman Catholic’s only allowed to settle in New France, Jesuits try to convert Indians.
  • Movie The Black Robe depicts the French in Canada at this time.
  • Later in the century, French explorers, Louis Jolliet and Jaques Marquette will explore the Mississippi.
  • Still later 1682, Robert Cavalier or the Sieur de La Salle, reach the Gulf of Mexico and claim the Mid West to France.
  • New Orleans is established by Pierre Le Moyne, 1699, thus the French have a presence in North America

Dutch In America

  • Dutch West India Company- wanted to find the Northwest Passage to India
  • Henry Hudson- (1609) explored what is now Hudson River in New York
  • Colony of New Netherlands
  • At first relationship with Indians was good- not much settlement and trading economy- fur trading
  • Founded New Amsterdam on Manhattan Island- purchased from Indians (Cheap)
  • Peter Stuyvesant- was a strong leader
  • New Sweden was another very small colony- but was taken over by the Dutch in 1655.
  • Multiethnic colony- mixed from Dutch, Swedes, Finns, French, German and English
  • Low population- created need for Slave labor 1620s slaves brought by Dutch- later 7-9% of population.
  • Later English will take over colony.

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