Creation of the welfare state what will I learn?

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What will I learn?

Success Criteria

  • I will be able to define the term ‘welfare state’
  • I will be able to identify the ‘Five Giants of Poverty’ and explain what they mean.
  • I will able to outline the founding principles that the Welfare State was based on.

Topics covered

  • Creation of the Welfare State
  • Who should provide services
  • Health and Wealth Inequalities
  • Gender and racial inequalities
  • Government responses to these inequalities

Agree or Disagree?

  • All health services should be free at the point of need.
  • The state should be responsible for providing health care and not private companies for profit.
  • If you lose your job, the government is responsible and should help out.
  • When in need, people should fend for themselves and not look to the government for help.
  • Education should be free to all and not be privatised.

What is the ‘Welfare State’?

  • In your groups, can you come up with your own definition of the Welfare State?
  • Write a list of things that the Welfare state provides today.
  • Can you think of any changes that have happened?

What is the ‘Welfare State’?

  • A ‘welfare state’ is a system under which the government takes on responsibility for providing social and economic security for the population by means of pensions, social security benefits, free health care and free education. The government provides for people in times of need.

Liberal Reforms

  • At the beginning of the 20th century, the foundations of the welfare state were established by the Liberal government.
  • The first pensions were introduced in 1909. Paid to people 75+ and means tested.
  • 1911 National Insurance Act provided some support for working men in times of need.
  • The period between the First and Second World War was one of financial crisis, economic depression and high unemployment. Little progress was made in developing further the creation of the welfare state.

Beveridge Report

  • The development of the welfare state as we know it today began with the publication of the Beveridge Report in 1942.
  • It was produced by Sir William Beveridge.
  • Beveridge advocated welfare services to tackle what he saw as the five evil social giants.
  • After World War Two, the Labour government tried to tackle these five problems.

Founding Principles of Welfare State/ 5 giants of poverty

  • Want
  • Disease
  • Ignorance
  • Squalor
  • Idleness
  • Income
  • Health
  • Education
  • Housing
  • Employment

How would you solve these problems?

  • WANT,
  • In your groups discuss how you think the Government of the time decided to deal with each of these giant evils in British society.

How were the 5 giants to be tackled?

  • To tackle the five ‘Giant Evils’ the Beveridge Report called for:
  • Universal benefits that would cover old age, unemployment and sickness
  • A comprehensive health service
  • Vastly expanded public sector housing
  • Free and universal secondary education
  • Full employment

How were the 5 giants to be tackled?

  • Watch these short clips about the creation of the welfare state.

1. Want

  • People should not be desperately in need of money.
  • Idea of ‘social security’ developed.
  • The government set up a comprehensive range of benefits for the young, the old and those of working age who were unable to work.
  • Examples: child benefit, sickness benefit, housing benefit and state retirement pension.
  • Government funding to be gained through general taxation of the working population.

2. Disease

  • Everyone to have health needs met, regardless of income.
  • The National Health Service was set up in 1948.

2. Disease

  • The NHS in Scotland was set up in 1948. It provides a comprehensive range of healthcare services to citizens based on need and not ability to pay. NHS services include:
  • Hospital services e.g. Glasgow Royal Infirmary
  • Primary care - GPs, dentists, opticians, pharmacies, etc.
  • Local authority services including community nurses and health visitors

3. Squalor

  • Everyone to have adequate housing.
  • Slum housing in big cities torn down.
  • Programme of council building started.
  • ‘New towns’ were built in Scotland: Cumbernauld, East Kilbride, Glenrothes, Irvine and Livingston.

3. Squalor

  • Social housing is a term used to describe affordable rented accommodation which is owned and managed by a local authority (or council) or increasingly, housing associations.
  • Social housing properties are rented out to those who cannot afford to buy or rent from the private sector or, who need special types e.g. elderly people in sheltered housing.
  • We might know this type of housing better as Council Houses.

4. Ignorance

  • Every child to leave school with a decent level of education.
  • School leaving age gradually increased to 16.
  • Comprehensive schools set up for all children 11-16 years.
  • End of 11+ exam.

5. Idleness

  • Aim to achieve full employment – a job for every person able to work.
  • The government ‘nationalised’ many of the private companies – eg. ‘British Rail’ and ‘British Steel’.
  • As the government was now the major employer, it believed it could control the amount of jobs available.

I can…

  • Define the term ‘welfare state’
  • Identify the ‘Five Giants of Poverty’ and explain what they mean.
  • Outline the founding principles that the Welfare State was based on.

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