Disaster Planning and Policies Course Overview: Demographic changes, human settlement patterns, land-use decisions, and political and social policy dynamics have increased vulnerability to natural and man-made disasters. Planning and policy processes and interventions can help reduce disaster vulnerabilities and increase resilience at every stage of the disaster management cycle: disaster mitigation, preparation, response, and recovery.
The course will be divided into four modules relating to planning and policy processes corresponding to these four traditional phases of disaster management. Throughout the semester, particular attention will be paid to how disaster planning and policy efforts can increase and promote resilience and reduce vulnerabilities. This course will be designed to serve as an upper level Bachelor’s degree course and could be easily adapted to the graduate level with the addition of other reading materials, and will be based on a model of 15 three-hour sessions, separated into one session a week for 15 weeks. Alternatively, the course material could be broken up into a twice-a-week or three-times-a-week format if desired.
Course Objectives: This course proposes to provide students with the following:
Understanding of the roles of the various phases of disaster management and issues concerning planning and policies in those phases.
Understanding of comprehensive emergency management from a planning and policy perspective
Understanding of the role of federal, state, and local governments in disaster planning and policies.
Knowledge of mitigation planning and policy strategies.
Understanding of comprehensive emergency management and related plans
Understanding of factors affecting short and long-term recovery and rebuilding and the role of planners and policy-makers.
Understanding of the factors that give rise to disaster vulnerabilities (e.g. natural, physical, social, economic, policies, and governance).
Understanding of the factors that give rise to differential vulnerabilities and levels of community resilience
Knowledge and capabilities to assess and manage these vulnerabilities through disaster planning and policy-making.
Data, methods, tools, and geospatial techniques (including GIS) that can enhance vulnerability assessments and knowledge building.
Competencies to utilize mapping in mitigation planning and response operations
Waugh, William L. Jr. (2000). Living with Hazards, Dealing with Disasters: An Introduction to Emergency Management. Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe.
Burby, Raymond (1998). Cooperating with Nature: Confronting natural hazards with land-use planning for sustainable communities. Joseph Henry Press.
Additional Reading Additional reading assignments have been selected from articles and Web Sites. Where possible, the weblinks to the articles are noted, but they may require permission/access from the instructor’s library/school.
Students are also encouraged to use Internet information sources and may subscribe to discussion lists for a variety of disaster organizations and related professions and receive email notification of major earthquakes and other disasters, federal disaster relief announcements, job announcements, research opportunities, and other relevant professional news from the field.
The instructor should encourage students to become familiar with the following sites:
www.fema.gov - for basic information on the federal emergency management system, reports, legal documents, training and planning documents, and status reports on disasters, as well as links to state and local emergency management agencies (including a link to the Florida Emergency Management Agency).
www.colorado.edu/hazards - for information regarding specific hazards, full texts of the Natural Hazards Center’s series of working papers and quick response reports for recent disasters, and other information sources.
www.dhs.gov - for basic information on the Department of Homeland Security, including FEMA, and its constituent agencies and directorates.
www.iaem.com - for information on the International Association of Emergency Managers (including IAEM Europa, IAEM Oceana, and IAEM Asia), job listings, commentary on current policy issues.
www.drc.udel.edu - for applied social science research related to disasters, full texts of some of the Disaster Research Center’s publications, including reports to FEMA and other government agencies.
www.emforum.org - Emergency Information Infrastructure Partnership (EIIP) forum. Holds Internet workshops on a broad range of emergency management issues and maintains an archive of transcripts.
Instructors can structure the classes as a mix of lectures, class discussions, and student presentations depending on the level at which it is being taught. They could also request select guest speakers and a site visit to the local Emergency Operations Center for the topic on Emergency Operations Planning would benefit students. Instructors can also use e-portals such as Blackboard to post the syllabus, related websites, and other class materials on a class website.
Class Requirements: All reading should be done before each session to facilitate discussion. Required course assignments include the following: 1) class participation; 2) two quizzes; 3) a applied research project; and, 4) a final examination.
Class Participation: Class participation is an essential component of the requirements for successful completion of this class. Points for class participation are not simply guaranteed by attendance; participation consists of being present in class, reading all assignments prior to the beginning of class, and being an active member in class discussions and presentations. In addition, there will be some class activities, case analyses, and discussions. Class participation is important, because your presence and contributions are a vital part of a successful class. Interaction with others is as important a part of the learning experience as is the material being studied.
Quizzes: There will be two quizzes held. These will cover all the material in class up to the date of the quiz. It will consist of multiple-choice, true/false, and short essay questions.
Final Examination:The final examination will consist of short essay questions.
Applied Research Project: Disaster Case Analysis:
Students should select a major U.S. or international disaster and prepare a written analysis (15-20 pages in length) including bibliography. Students should be prepared to provide a 5-10 minute over in class during the last class session. Using library and internet sources, the analyses should assess the state of knowledge about the disaster and provide an analysis that includes:
a brief (1-2 page) description of the disaster and the emergency management effort;
the nature and location of the disaster (i.e., natural or technological/man-made);
the number of human casualties and amount of property loss.
social and economic demographics and vulnerabilities of the area
the government(s) having jurisdictional responsibility and involved in the disaster response and recovery effort;
the involvement of nonprofit and for-profit actors in the response and recovery effort;
the major planning and policy issues raised—e.g., lack of mitigation effort, inadequacy of preparedness, response failure, recovery problems; and
the disaster planning the community had undertaken prior to the incident.
The assignment of points and the grading scale is as follows:
Class Participation 10%
Final Examination 20%
Applied Research Project 30%
All the work that you submit must be your own. Plagiarism is a serious violation of the student honor code and will not be tolerated. Plagiarism will result in an “F” on the plagiarized paper, a possible “F” in the course, and may also lead to dismissal from the University. For more information on this issue, please read the recommended student guidelines at http://www.fau.edu/caupa/pdf/ethics_student_guidelines.pdf.
Students with Disabilities
In compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), students who require special accommodations due to a disability to properly execute coursework must register with the Office for Students with Disabilities (OSD) and follow all OSD procedures.
Course Topics: Week 1: Introduction: Hazards and Disasters: Planning and Policies
Instructor and Student Introductions
Course and Syllabus Introduction and Discussion
Discussion of Course Objectives
Video clip of Recent Disaster to Generate Discussion on Course
Explanation of Course Requirements
Ice-breaker Exercise for Students
Recommended Readings For the Instructor:
Drabek, T. E. (2003a). Emergent phenomena and the sociology of disaster: Lessons, trends and opportunities from the research literature. Disaster Prevention and Management 12: 97-112
Articles from the Public Administration review special issue: Public Administration Review, Vol. 45, Special Issue: Emergency Management: A Challenge for Public Administration (Jan., 1985). Includes the following articles:
Emergency Management: A challenge for Public Administration. WJ Petak
A Framework for Integrated Emergency Management : D McLoughlin
Module 1: Disaster Mitigation Policies and Planning Week 2: U.S. Disaster Policies: History and Institutions: Required Readings:
W. Waugh, Living with Hazards: Chapter 2.
Sylves, Rick. 2008. Disaster Policy and Politics: Emergency Management and Homeland Security. Washington D.C.: CQ Press, Chapters 1, 2, and 3
Lindell, Mike, Carla Prater, and Ronald Perry. 2006. Fundamentals of Emergency Management, Chapters 1 and 2. “Introduction to Emergency Management” and “Emergency Management Stakeholders.” http://training.fema.gov/EMIWeb/edu/fem.asp
Federal Emergency Management Agency. (2004b). History of the federal emergency management agency. Washington DC: FEMA. Retrieved March 14, 2011, from http://www.fema.gov/about/history.shtm
Mileti. 1999. Disasters by Design. Chapters 1 and 2.
Gerber, B. J. (2007). Disaster management in the United States: Examining key political policy challenges. The Policy Studies Journal, 35(2): 227-238
Week 3: Mitigation Planning and Policy Strategies: Local, State, and Federal Level Required Readings:
Schwab, James C (Ed). 2010. Hazard Mitigation: Integrating Best Practices into Planning. Planning Advisory Service Report # 560. Chicago, IL: American Planning Association (Chapters 2, 3 and 4)
Burby, Raymond (Ed.). 1998. Cooperating with Nature (Chapter 7)
Godschalk, David. 2003. Breaking the Disaster Cycle: Future Directions in Natural Hazard Mitigation. http://www.training.fema.gov/emiweb/downloads/breakingdisastercycle/Session01.pdf
Waugh. 2000. Living with Hazards, Chapter 5
Mileti. 1999. Disasters by Design. Chapter 5.
Burby, Raymond (Ed.). 1998. Cooperating with Nature (Chapter 4)
Deyle, R.E.; Chapin, T.S and Baker, E.J. (2008). The proof of the planning is in the platting: An evaluation of Florida’s hurricane exposure mitigation planning mandate. Journal of American Planning Association 74(3): 349-370
Week 4: Measuring and Mapping Vulnerability Required Readings:
Thomas, D.S.K., P.K. Stephens and J. Goldsmith. 2009. Chapter 14. “Measuring and Conveying Social Vulnerability,” in B.D. Phillips, D.S.K. Thomas, A. Fothergill and L. Blinn-Pike (Eds). Social Vulnerability to Disasters. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press
Esnard, A-M. (2007). The Nexus of Hazard Assessment, GeoSpatial Technologies, and Holistic Community Planning Strategies (Chapter 5). In “Losing Ground: Nation on Edge” Environmental Law Institute.
Thomas, D.S.K., K. Ertugay and S. Kemec. 2007. Chapter 5 “The Role of Geographic Information Systems/Remote Sensing in Disaster Management” in H. Rodriguez, E.L. Quarantelli and R.R. Dynes (Eds). Handbook of Disaster Research. New York, NY:L Springer
Moffatt, S.F. and Cova, T.J. (2010) Parcel-scale earthquake loss estimation with HAZUS: a case-study in Salt Lake County, Utah. Cartography and Geographic Information Science, 37: 17-29.
Morrow, B. H. (1999). Identifying and mapping community vulnerability. Disasters, 23(1), 1-18.
Godschalk, D.R.. E.J. Kaiser and P.R. Berke. Chapter 5 “Hazard Assessment: The Factual Basis for Planning and Mitigation” in Burby, Raymond (Ed.). 1998. Cooperating with Nature. Washington, DC: Joseph Henry Press.
NOAA Risk and Vulnerability Assessment (RVAT) - http://www.csc.noaa.gov/rvat/rvat.html
Federal Emergency Management Agency (2006) HAZUS: FEMA’s Software Program for Estimating Losses from Disasters. http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/hazus/index.shtm.
Cutter, S.L., J.T. Mitchell and M.S. Scott. (1997). Handbook for Conducting a GIS-based Hazards Assessment at the County Level. Prepared for South Carolina Emergency Preparedness Division. Accessed October 2010 from website: http://training.fema.gov/EMIweb/edu/docs/hrm/Session%206%20-%20Handbook%20GIS-Based%20Hazards%20Assessment.pdf
Tate E., S.L. Cutter, and M. Berry, 2010. "Integrated multihazard mapping." Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 37(4): 646–663.
Module 2: Preparedness and Planning Week 5: Social, Economic, and Political Vulnerabilities Required Readings:
Bolin, B. 2007. Chapter 7 “Race, Class, Ethnicity and Disaster Vulnerability ” in H. Rodriguez, E.L. Quarantelli and R.R. Dynes (Eds). Handbook of Disaster Research. New York, NY: Springer
Phillips, B.D. and M. Fordham. 2009. “Introduction.” Chapter 1, in B.D. Phillips, D.S.K. Thomas, A. Fothergill and L. Blinn-Pike (Eds). Social Vulnerability to Disasters. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press
Laska, S., and Morrow, B. (2007). "Social vulnerabilities and Hurricane Katrina: An Unnatural disaster in New Orleans." Marine Technology Society Journal, 40(4) 16-26.
Cutter, S. L. (2006). "Moral hazard, Social catastrophe: The changing face of vulnerability along the hurricane coasts." The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 604(1), 102-112.
Clark, G. E., Moser, S. C., Ratick, S. J., Dow, K., Meyer, W. B., Emani, S., et al. (1998). "Assessing the Vulnerability of Coastal Communities to Extreme Storms: The Case of Revere, MA., USA". Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 3(1) 59-82.
Related Readings on Climate Change and Vulnerability:
Smit, B. & Wandel, J. (2006). Adaption, adaptive capacity and vulnerability. Global Environmental Change 16: 282 - 292. http://www.uio.no/studier/emner/annet/sum/SUM4015/h08/Smit.pdf
Brooks, N., Adger, W.N., Kelly, P.M. (2005). The determinants of vulnerability and adaptive capacity at the national level and the implications for adaptation. Global Environmental Change 15: 151–163.
Week 6: Community Resilience Required Readings:
Cutter S.L., Burton C.G. and Emrich C.T. (2010). Disaster resilience indicators for benchmarking baseline conditions. Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management 7(1):1-22
National Research Council. (2010). Building community disaster resilience through public private collaboration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press
Cutter, S.L.; Barnes, L.; Berry, M.; Burton, C.; Evans, E.; Tate, E.; Webb, J. (2008). A place-based model for understanding community resilience to natural disasters. Global Environmental Change 18(8): 598-606
Norris FH, Stevens SP, Pfefferbaum B, Wyche KF, Pfefferbaum RL. (2008). Community resilience as a metaphor, theory, set of capacities, and strategy for disaster readiness. American Journal of Community Psychology, 41, (1 – 2), 127 – 150
From FEMA.gov “Building disaster resilient communities”. Link : training.fema.gov/EMIWeb/edu/docs/hazdem/Trends-Building%20Disaster%20Resilient%20Communities.doc - 2006-12-04
United Nations. (2007). Building disaster resilient communities: Good practices and lessons learned. International Strategy for Disaster Reduction. UNISDR publications. Retrieved on March 14, 2011 from website: http://www.unisdr.org/eng/about_isdr/isdr-publications/06-ngos-good-practices/ngos-good-practices.pdf
Meyer, Robert J. (2006). “Why We Under-Prepare for Hazards.” pp. 153-173 In: R. J. Daniels, D. F. Kettl, and H. Kunreuther (eds). On risk and disaster: lessons from hurricane Katrina. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press
Tobin, G.A. (1999). Sustainability and Community Resilience: The Holy grails of hazard planning? Environmental Hazards1: 13 – 25 http://archone.tamu.edu/epsru/Course_Readings/Ldev671MARS689/LDEV671_Readings/Tobin_holygrail.pdf
Week 8: Communication and Risk Management (Policies and Plans) Required Readings:
Rodriguez, H.. W. Diaz, J.M. Santos and B. E. Aguirre. 2007. Chapter 29 “Communicating Risk and Uncertainty: Science , Technology, and Disasters at the Crossroads” in H. Rodriguez, E.L. Quarantelli and R.R. Dynes (Eds). Handbook of Disaster Research. New York, NY: Springer
Longstaff, P.H. and Yang, Sung-Un. (2008). Communication management and trust: Their role in building resilience to surprises such as natural disasters, pandemic flu, and terrorism. Ecology and Society 13(1)http://www.ibcperu.org/doc/isis/8551.pdf
Lindell, Mike, Carla Prater, and Ronald Perry. 2006. Fundamentals of Emergency Management, Chapters 4. “Risk Perception and Communication.” http://training.fema.gov/EMIWeb/edu/fem.asp
Moritz, M.J. (2006). Covering the News “come hell and high water:” Journalists in a Disaster. Pp. 353-372 in Learning from Catastrophe: Quick Response Research in the Wake of Hurricane Katrina. Boulder, Colorado: Natural Hazards Center
Gladwin, H. and W.G. Peacock (1997). Warning and Evacuation: A Night for Hard Houses. Chapter 4, in W.G. Peacock, B.H. Morrow and H. Gladwin (Eds.). Hurricane Andrew: Ethnicity, Gender and the Sociology of Disasters. College Station, TX: Hazard Reduction and Recovery Center.
McComas, K. A. (2006) Defining moments in risk communication research : 1996 – 2005 Journal of Health Communication 11(1): 75 – 91 http://classweb.gmu.edu/gkreps/798/011._McComas,_Defining_Moments_in_Risk_Com_Research.pdf
Fischoff, B (1995). Risk perception and communication unplugged: Twenty years of Process. Risk Analysis, 15(2):137-145 http://www.soc.iastate.edu/Sapp/Fischhoff.pdf
Sandman, P.M. (1988). Risk Communication: Facing public outrage. Management Communication Quarterly, 2, 235 – 238
Somers, S. and Svara, J.H. (2009). Assessing and managing environmental risk: connecting local government management with emergency management. Public Administration Review 69(2): 181-193
Recommended Activity: Class visit to the local Emergency Operations Center (EOC) with a tour and guest lecturer from the EOC.
Week 10:Supporting Emergency Response Operations using Geospatial Technologies Required Readings:
Chen, A.Y; Pena-Mora, F. and Ouyang, Y. (2010). A collaborative GIS framework to support equipment distribution for civil engineering disaster response operations. Automation in Construction
ESRI. 2010. GIS in Public Safety Website. Accessed November 2010 from http://www.esri.com/industries/public-safety/index.html
Hodgson, M.E.; Davis, B.A and Kotelenska, J. (2010). Remote sensing and GIS data/information in the emergency response/ recovery phase. Geospatial Techniques in Urban Hazard and Disaster Analysis 2(4): 327-354
Cutter, S. L. (2003). GI science, disasters and emergency management. Transactions in GIS 7(4): 439 – 445http://webra.cas.sc.edu/hvri/pubs/2003_GIScienceDisastersAndEM.pdf
Rauschert, I.; Agrawal, P.; Fuhrmann, S.; Brewer, I.; Wang, H.; Sharma, R.; Cai, G., & MacEachren, A. (2002), Designing a human-centered, multimodal GIS interface to support emergency management. ACM GIS'02, 10th ACM Symposium on Advances in Geographic Information Systems, Washington, DC, USA, November, 2002, pp. 119-124. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.12.3602&rep=rep1&type=pdf
Radke, J., T. Cova, M.F. Sherida, a. Troy, L. Mu and R. Johnson. (2000) Challenges for GIS in Emergency Preparedness and Response. ESRI White Paper Redlands, CA: ESRI. Accessed November 2010 from website: http://www.esri.com/library/whitepapers/pdfs/challenges.pdf
Week 11:Collaboration and Coordination in Emergency Response Planning & Management Required Readings:
Hicklin, A.; O’Toole, J.; Meier, K.J. and Robinson, S.E. (2009) Calming the storm: Collaborative public management, hurricanes Katrina and Rita, and disaster response. In R. O’Leary, L.B. Bingham (eds). The collaborative public manager: New ideas for the twenty-first century Chapter 6
Kapucu, Naim. (2008). Collaborative emergency management: Better community organizing, better public preparedness and response. Disasters 3(2): 239-262.
Waugh, W. L. & Strelb, G. (2006). Collaboration and leadership for effective Emergency Management. Public Administration Review,Special Issue, pp. 131-140http://faculty.maxwell.syr.edu/rdenever/NatlSecurity2008_docs/Waugh_CollaborationLeadership.pdf
McEntire, D.A. . 2007. Chapter 10 “Local Emergency Management Organizations ” in H. Rodriguez, E.L. Quarantelli and R.R. Dynes (Eds). Handbook of Disaster Research. New York, NY: Springer
McGuire, M. (2009). The new professionalism and collaborative activity in local emergency management. In R. O’Leary, L.B. Bingham (eds). The collaborative public manager: New ideas for the twenty-first century Chapter 5
McGuire, M. and Silvia, C. (2010). The effect of problem severity, managerial and organizational capacity, and agency structure on intergovernmental collaboration: Evidence from local emergency management. Public Administration Review; 70(2): 279-288
Kapucu, Naim. (2005). Inter-organizational coordination in dynamic context: Networks in emergency response management. Connection 26(2): 33–48.http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.126.5923&rep=rep1&type=pdf
Drabek, T. E. (2003b). Five types of strategies for coordinating disaster responses. ASPEP (American Society for Professional Emergency Planners) Journal 10: 1-21.
Module 4: Disaster Recovery and Rebuilding
Week 12: Recovery Time-frames and Differential Recovery Rates Required Readings:
Mitchell, C.M., A-M Esnard and A. Sapat. (2010). Hurricane Events, Population Displacement and Sheltering Provision in the United States. Working Paper: College for Design and Social Inquiry, Florida Atlantic University.
Webb, G. R., Tierney, K. J., Dahlhamer, J. M. (2002). Predicting long term business recovery from disaster: A comparison of the Loma Prieta earthquake and hurricane Andrew. Environmental Hazards 4: 45-58.
Berke , P.R., J. Kartez, and D. Wenger. (1993). Recovery after disaster: achieving sustainable development, mitigation and equity. Disasters: The Journal of Disaster Studies and Management, 17(2): 93–109.
Bolin, R. and Stanford, L. (1991) Shelter, housing and recovery: a comparison of U.S. disasters. Disasters15(1): 24–34
Bolin, R. C. (1985) Disasters and long-term recovery policy: A focus on housing and families. Policy Studies Review 4(4): 709-715
Week 14: Post-Disaster Recovery Planning and Reconstruction Required Readings:
Phillips B.D. 2009. Disaster Recovery chapter 10- Social Psychological Recovery; Chapter 11- Public Sector Recovery)
Gavin Smith. Forthcoming. A Review of the United States Disaster Assistance Framework: Planning for Post-Disaster Recovery. Fairfax, VA: Public Entity Risk Institute. Selected Chapters TBD
Olshansky, R.B. (2006). Planning after Hurricane Katrina, Journal of the American Planning Association, 72(2): 147-153.
Natural Hazards Center and Public Entity Risk Institute. (2006). Holistic Disaster Recovery: Ideas for Building Local Sustainability after a Natural Disaster, Chapter 8.
Liu, Amy. (2010). Federal post-disaster recovery: A review of federal programs. Metropolitan Policy Program at Brookings http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/1001384-federal-post.pdf?RSSFeed=UI_CitiesandNeighborhoods.xml
Wilson, P. (2009). Deliberative planning for disaster recovery: Re-membering New Orleans. Journal of Public Deliberation, 5(1): 1-25 http://services.bepress.com/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1104&context=jpd&sei-redir=1#search="disaster+recovery+time-frames"
Nigg J.M. (1995). Disaster recovery as a social process. Preliminary Paper #219. Disaster Research Center: University of Delaware. http://dspace.udel.edu:8080/dspace/bitstream/19716/625/1/PP219.pdf
Berke, P. R., J. Kartez, and D. Wenger. (1993). Recovery after disaster: achieving sustainable development, mitigation and equity. Disasters 17(2): 93-109.
References: Birkland, Thomas. 2006. Lessons of Disaster: Policy Change after Catastrophic Events. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press.
Burby, Raymond (Ed.). 1998. Cooperating with Nature: Confronting natural hazards with land-use planning for sustainable communities. Joseph Henry Press.
Drabek, Thomas. 2010. The Human Side of Disaster. Taylor and Francis
Florida Department of Community Affairs. 2010. Post-Disaster Redevelopment Planning: A Guide for Florida Communities.
Lindell, Michael et al., 2006. Introduction to Emergency Management (Wiley Pathways edition)
Mileti, Dennis S. 1999. Disasters by Design: A Reassessment of Natural Hazards in the United States.
National Research Council. 2007. Successful Response Starts with a Map: Improving Geospatial Support for Disaster Management
Phillips B.D. 2009. Disaster Recovery. Boca Raton: CRC Press
Schwab, J., K. C. Topping, C. C. Eadie, R. E. Deyle, and R. A. Smith. 1998. Planning
for post-disaster recovery and reconstruction. Washington D.C: American Planning
Schwab, James C (Ed). 2010. Hazard Mitigation: Integrating Best Practices into Planning. Planning Advisory Service Report # 560. Chicago, IL: American Planning Association
Tierney, K., M. Lindell, and R. Perry. 2001. Facing the Unexpected: Disaster Preparedness and Response in the United States. Washington, DC: Joseph Henry Press.
Waugh, William L. Jr. 2000. Living with Hazards, Dealing with Disasters: An Introduction to Emergency Management. Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe.
1 School of Public Administration, Florida Atlantic University
2 School of Urban and Regional Planning, Florida Atlantic University