Chapter 4: Ancient Greece



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DO NOW

  • Between 750 and 500 B.C.E., Greek civilization witnessed the emergence of the city-state as the central institution in Greek life and the Greeks’ colonization of the Mediterranean and Black Seas. Classical Greece lasted from about 500 to 338 B.C.E. and encompassed the high points of Greek civilization in arts, science, philosophy, and politics as well as the Persian Wars and the Peloponnesian War.
  • LOOK AT THE MAP ON PAGE 97. HOW DOES THE GEOGRAPHY OF GREECE HELP EXPLAIN THE RISE AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE GREEK CITY-STATE?

DO NOW

  • Between 750 and 500 B.C.E., Greek civilization witnessed the emergence of the city-state as the central institution in Greek life and the Greeks’ colonization of the Mediterranean and Black Seas. Classical Greece lasted from about 500 to 338 B.C.E. and encompassed the high points of Greek civilization in arts, science, philosophy, and politics as well as the Persian Wars and the Peloponnesian War.
  • LOOK AT THE MAP ON PAGE 110. HOW DOES THE GEOGRAPHY OF GREECE HELP EXPLAIN THE RISE AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE GREEK CITY-STATE?

DO NOW

  • Look at the picture on page 111 and the two pictures below. Heinrich Schliemann discovered six tombs at the royal grave circle near the lion gate at Mycenae. How do these tombs compare to Egyptian tombs??????

DO NOW

  • Look at the pictures below. Heinrich Schliemann discovered six tombs at the royal grave circle near the lion gate at Mycenae. How do these tombs compare to Egyptian tombs??????

Chapter 4: Ancient Greece

  • Section 1: The First Greek Civilizations

Greek Geography

  • Geography played an important role in the development of Greek civilizations. Compared with Mesopotamia and Egypt, Greece occupies a small area. It consists of a mountainous peninsula and numerous islands that encompass about fifty thousand square miles of territory—about the size of the state of Louisiana. The mountains and the sea played especially significant roles in the development of Greek history. Much of Greece consists of small plains and river valleys surrounded by high mountain ranges.

Impact of Geography: The mountains isolated Greeks from one another, causing different Greek communities to develop their own ways of life. Over a period of time, these communities became fiercely independent. It is probable that the small size of these independent communities encouraged people to participate in political affairs. On the other hand, the rivalry between the communities led to warfare that devastated Greek society.

  • 1. Geography of Greece
  • 2. development of communities
  • 3. Minoan civilization (2700-1450 B.C.E.)
  • 1. consists of small plains and river valleys surrounded by high mountain ranges
  • 2. were rivals; led to constant warfare; developed independently
  • 3. people who settled on the large island of Crete; developed bronze

Landscape of Greece

Map of Greece

Geography: By 2800 B.C., a Bronze civilization that used metals, especially bronze, in making weapons had been established on the large island of Crete, southeast of the Greek mainland. Called Minoan civilization, it flourished between 2700 and 1450 B.C. The centers of Minoan civilization on Crete suffered a sudden and catastrophic collapse around 1450 B.C. Some historians believe that a tidal wave triggered by a powerful volcanic eruption on the island of Thera was responsible for the devastation. Most historians, however, believe that the destruction was the result of invasion by mainland Greeks known as the Mycenaens.

  • 4. Crete
  • 5. Mycenaean Greeks (1600-1100 B.C.E.)
  • 4. southeast of the Greek mainland
  • 5. Indo-European family of peoples; civilization was made up of powerful monarchies; settled in mainland of Greece

Mycenaean civilization, which reached its high point between 1400 and 1200 B.C., was made up of powerful monarchies. Each resided in a fortified palace center. Like Mycenae, these centers were built on hills surrounded by gigantic stone walls. The various centers of power probably formed a loose alliance of independent states. While the royal families lived within the walls of these complexes, the civilian populations lived in scattered locations outside the walls. Among the noticeable features of these Mycenaean centers were tombs where members of the royal families were buried. Known as tholos tombs, they were built into hillsides.

  • 6. monarchy
  • 7. tholos
  • 8. Homer
  • 6. royal families who run city-states or countries
  • 7. tombs which were built into hillsides
  • 8. Greek poet who wrote such great works as the Iliad and the Odyssey

By the late 13th century B.C., Mycenaean Greece was showing signs of serious trouble. Mycenaean states fought one another, and major earthquakes caused widespread damage. In the 12th century B.C., new waves of Greek-speaking invaders moved into Greece from the north. By 1100 B.C., Mycenaean civilization had collapsed.

  • By the late 13th century B.C., Mycenaean Greece was showing signs of serious trouble. Mycenaean states fought one another, and major earthquakes caused widespread damage. In the 12th century B.C., new waves of Greek-speaking invaders moved into Greece from the north. By 1100 B.C., Mycenaean civilization had collapsed.

Dark Ages:After the collapse of Mycenaean civilization, Greece entered a difficult period in which the population declined and food production dropped. Historians call the period from approximately 1100 to 750 B.C. the Dark Age, because few records of what happened exist. Not until 850 B.C. did farming revive. At the same time, the basis for a new Greece was forming.

  • 9. Dark Ages (1100-750 B.C.E.)
  • 10. Greek colonization
  • 11. Ionia
  • 9. population declined, food production dropped, few records exist of what happened
  • 10. on shores of Asia minor ex: Ionia
  • 11. people began to settle in the western shores of Asia minor

At some point in the 8th century B.C., the Greeks adopted the Phoenician alphabet to give themselves a new system of writing. By reducing all words to a combination of 24 letters (both consonants and vowels), the Greeks made learning to read and write simpler. Near the very end of the Dark Age appeared the work of Homer, one of the truly great poets of all time.

  • At some point in the 8th century B.C., the Greeks adopted the Phoenician alphabet to give themselves a new system of writing. By reducing all words to a combination of 24 letters (both consonants and vowels), the Greeks made learning to read and write simpler. Near the very end of the Dark Age appeared the work of Homer, one of the truly great poets of all time.
  • The Iliad and the Odyssey were the first great epic poems of early Greece. They were based on stories that had been passed from generation to generation.

12. Developments of the Dark Age (850 B.C.E.)

  • 12. Developments of the Dark Age (850 B.C.E.)
  • 12. iron replaces bronze, revival in trade, creation of alphabet (adopted from the Phoenicians)

The Iliad and the Odyssey were the first great epic poems of early Greece. An epic poem is a long poem that tells the deeds of a great hero. The Iliad and the Odyssey were based on stories that had been passed on from generation to generation. Homer used the stories of the Trojan War to compose the Iliad and the Odyssey. The war is caused by Paris a prince of Troy. By kidnapping Helen, the wife of the King of the Greek state Sparta, Paris outrages all the Greeks. Under the leadership of the Spartan king’s brother, King Agamemnon, the Greeks attack Troy. Ten years later, the Greeks devise a plan to take the city. They trick the Trojans by building a huge hollow wooden horse. The best Mycenaean soldiers hide inside the horse, while the rest board their ships and pretend to sail away. The joyful Trojans, thinking themselves victorious, bring the gift horse into the city. That night, the Greeks creep out of the horse, slaughter the Trojan men, enslave the women and children, and burn the city to the ground.

  • 13. Iliad and the Odyssey (written around 725-675 B.C.E.)
  • 14. epic poem
  • 13. one of the first great epic poems of early Greece
  • 14. a long poem that tells the deeds of a great hero

The values Homer taught were courage and honor. Homer taught Greeks to be proud of their Greek heritage and their heroic ancestors. Homer gave to later generations of Greek males a model of heroism and honor. For example, the Iliad taught students to be proud of their Greek heritage and their heroic ancestors.

  • 15. arête
  • 15. a hero which strives for excellence
  • Through his willingness to fight, the hero protects his family and friends, preserves his own honor and that of his family, and earns his reputation

DO NOW

  • HOW DOES THE ILIAD REFLECT THE CULTURAL VIEWS OF GREECE PARTICULARLY AS IT RELATES TO THE IDEA OF HEROISM? EXPLAIN THE IDEA OF ARETE.
  • READ IN YOUR TEXTBOOKS ON PAGES 112-113 UNDER THE SECTION TITLED “HOMER”

DO NOW

  • HOW DOES THE ILIAD REFLECT THE CULTURAL VIEWS OF GREECE PARTICULARLY AS IT RELATES TO THE IDEA OF HEROISM? EXPLAIN THE IDEA OF ARETE.
  • READ IN YOUR TEXTBOOKS ON PAGES 98-100 UNDER THE SECTIONS TITLED “HOMER AND HOMERIC GREECE” AND “HOMER’S ENDURING IMPORTANCE”

DO NOW

  • Look at the map on page 117. Over a period of 200 years, the Greeks spread across Europe and northern Africa, bringing Greek civilization to areas more than 1,500 miles (2,400 km) from Greece. What was the relationship between the Greek trading routes and Greek colonies. (Analyze)

DO NOW

  • LOOK AT THE MAP ON PAGE 110. USING THE MAP, GIVE EXAMPLES OF HOW GREECE’S GEOGRAPHY AFFECTED GREEK CIVILIZATION?

DO NOW

  • LOOK AT THE MAP 4.1 ON PAGE 97.
  • BETWEEN 750 AND 500 B.C.E., GREEK CIVILIZATION WITNESSED THE EMERGENCE OF THE CITY-STATE AS THE CENTRAL INSTITUTION IN GREEK LIFE AND THE GREEKS’ COLONIZATINO OF THE MEDITERRANEAN AND BLACK SEAS. CLASSICAL GREECE LASTED FROM ABOUT 500 TO 338 B.C.E. AND ENCOMPASSED THE HIGH POINTS OF GREEK CIVILIZATION IN ARTS, SCIENCE, PHILOSOPHY, AND POLITICS, AS WELL AS THE PERSIAN WAR AND THE PELOPONNESIAN WAR.
  • HOW DOES THE GEOGRAPHY OF GREECE HELP EXPLAIN THE RISE AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE GREEK CITY-STATES?
  • USING THE MAP, GIVE EXAMPLES OF HOW GREECE’S GEOGRAPHY AFFECTED GREEK CIVILIZATION?

Section 2: The Greek City-States

  • 1. polis
  • 2. acropolis
  • 1. a town, city, or village, that served as the center where people could meet for political, social, and religious activities
  • 2. Served as a place of refuge during an attack and sometimes became a religious center
  • 3. agora
  • 4. military system
  • 5. hoplites
  • 3. an open area that served as a place where people could assemble as a market
  • 4. based on hoplites
  • 5. heavily armed infantry soldiers or foot soldiers

6. phalanx

  • 6. phalanx
  • 7. colonization
  • 6. battle formation in which an infantry marches shoulder to shoulder in a rectangular formation
  • 7. led to an increase in trade and industry

The success of trade and industry created a new group of wealthy individuals known as tyrants

  • 8. Greek tyrants
  • 9. democracy
  • 10. oligarchy
  • 8. rulers who seized power by force from the aristocrats
  • 9. government by the people
  • 10. rule by the few

Sparta Like the other Greek city-states, Sparta was faced with the need for more land. Instead of sending its people out to start new colonies, as some states did, the Spartans conquered the neighboring Laconians. Later, beginning around 730 B.C., the Spartans undertook the conquest of neighboring Messenia despite its larger size and population. Between 800 and 600 B.C., the lives of Spartans were rigidly organized and tightly controlled (thus, our word spartan, meaning “highly self-disciplined”).

  • 11. Sparta (military state)
  • 11. instead of colonizing to gain extra land, they invaded and conquered their neighbors

Sparta Males spent their childhood learning military discipline. Then they enrolled in the army for regular military service at age 20. Although allowed to marry, they continued to live in the military barracks until age 30. At 30, Spartan males were allowed to vote in the assembly and live at home, but they stayed in the army until the age of 60. While their husbands lived in the barracks, Spartan women lived at home. Because of this separation, Spartan women had greater freedom of movement and greater power in the household than was common elsewhere in Greece.

  • 12. men
  • 13. women
  • 12. spent their childhood learning military discipline; lived in military barracks until age 30
  • 13. lived at home alone; had greater freedom; were expected to exercise

The Spartan government was an oligarchy headed by two kings, who led the Spartan army on its campaign. A group of five men, known as the ephors were elected each year and were responsible for the education of youth and the conduct of all citizens. A council of elders, composed of the two kings and 28 citizens over the age of 60, decided on the issues that would be presented to an assembly made up of male citizens. This assembly did not debate; it only voted on the issues.

  • 14. Sparta’s government
  • 15. ephors
  • 14. oligarchy (led by two kings)
  • 15. elected each year responsible for the education of youth and conduct of citizens

DO NOW

  • EXPLAIN WHY ARETE WAS IMPORTANT TO GREEK MALES? READ THE LAST PARAGRAPH ON PAGE 113 IN YOUR BOOKS.

DO NOW

  • EXPLAIN WHY ARETE WAS IMPORTANT TO GREEK MALES? READ THE LAST PARAGRAPH ON PAGES 99-100 IN YOUR BOOKS.

Athens

  • By 700 B.C., Athens had become a unified polis on the peninsula of Attica. Early Athens was ruled by a king. By the 7th century B.C. however, Athens had become an oligarchy under the control of its aristocrats. These aristocrats owned the best land and controlled political life. There was an assembly of all citizens but it had few powers.

The ruling Athenian aristocrats reacted to this crisis in 594 B.C. by giving full power to Solon a reforminded aristocrat. Solon canceled all land debts and freed people who had fallen into slavery for debts. He refused however, to take land from the rich and give it to the poor. Solon’s reform, though popular, did not solve the problems of Athens. Aristocrats were still powerful and poor peasants could not obtain land. Internal strife finally led to the very thing that Solon had hoped to avoid—tyranny.

  • 16. Solon
  • 17. Solon’s reform
  • 16. reforminded aristocrat
  • 17. canceled all land debts and freed people who had fallen into slavery for debts

Pisistratus, an aristocrat seized power in 560 B.C. He then aided Athenian trade as a way of pleasing the merchants. He also gave aristocrats’ land to the peasants in order to gain the favor of the poor. The Athenians rebelled against Pisistratus’s son, who had succeeded him, and ended the tyranny in 510 B.C.. Two years later, with the backing of the Athenian people, Cleisthenes, another reformer gained the upper hand. Cleisthenes created a new council of five hundred that supervised foreign affairs, oversaw the treasury, and proposed the laws that would be voted on by the assembly.

  • 18. Pisistratus
  • 19. Cleisthenes
  • 18. seized power and gave aristocrats’ land to the peasants; aided Athenian trade
  • 19. created a new council of five hundred that proposed laws that would be voted on by an assembly

The Athenian assembly, composed of male citizens, was given final authority to pass law after free and open debate. Because the assembly now had the central role in the Athenian political system, the reforms of Cleisthenes created the foundations for Athenian democracy.

  • 20. Cleisthenes reform
  • 21. Athens government
  • 20. assembly now had the central role in Athens
  • 21. democracy (rule by the people)

DO NOW Read “The Way It Was” on page 118. Contrast the two powerful Greek city-states: Sparta and Athens

DO NOW Read pages 103-105 in the sections titled “The Spartan State” and “Athens”. Contrast the two powerful Greek city-states: Sparta and Athens

As the Greeks spread throughout the Mediterranean, they came into contact with the Persian Empire to the east. The Ionian Greek cities in western Asia Minor had already fallen subject to the Persian Empire by the mid-sixth century B.C. In 499 B.C., an unsuccessful revolt by the Ionian cities—assisted by the Athenian navy—led the Persian ruler Darius to seek revenge. In 490 B.C., the Persians landed on the plain of Marathon, only 26 miles from Athens. There, an outnumbered Athenian army attacked and defeated the Persians decisively.

  • As the Greeks spread throughout the Mediterranean, they came into contact with the Persian Empire to the east. The Ionian Greek cities in western Asia Minor had already fallen subject to the Persian Empire by the mid-sixth century B.C. In 499 B.C., an unsuccessful revolt by the Ionian cities—assisted by the Athenian navy—led the Persian ruler Darius to seek revenge. In 490 B.C., the Persians landed on the plain of Marathon, only 26 miles from Athens. There, an outnumbered Athenian army attacked and defeated the Persians decisively.

Section 3: Classic Greece: According to legend, news of Persia’s defeat was brought by an Athenian runner named Pheidippides who raced 26 miles from Marathon to Athens.

  • 1. Pheidippides
  • 1. raced 26 miles to bring news of Persia’s defeat from Marathon to Athens
  • With his last breath, he announced, “Victory, we win,” before dropping dead

After Darius died in 486 B.C., Xerxes became the new Persian monarch. He vowed revenge and planned to invade Greece. In preparation for the attack, the Athenians began rebuilding their navy. By the time the Persians invaded in 480 B.C., the Athenians had a fleet of about two hundred vessels.

  • 2. Xerxes
  • 2. became the new Persian monarch and vowed revenge on all of Greece
  • Brought an army of 180,000 troops and thousands of warships and supply vessels

A Greek force of about seven thousand held off the Persian army for two days. The three hundred Spartans were especially brave. Unfortunately for the Greeks, a traitor told the Persians how to use a mountain path to outflank the Greek force. The Athenians, now threatened by the onslaught of the Persian forces, abandoned their city. Near island of Salamis, the Greek fleet, though outnumbered managed to outmaneuver the Persian fleet and defeat it. A few months later, early in 479 B.C., the Greeks formed the largest Greek army up to that time and defeated the Persian army at Plataea, northwest of Athens.

  • 3. 300 Spartans
  • 3. were a well known force who had delayed the Persians from moving forward for some time
  • Unfortunately for the Greeks, a traitor told the Persians how to use a mountain path to outflank the Greek force

After the defeat of the Persians, Athens took over the leadership of the Greek world. In 478 B.C., the Athenians formed a defensive alliance against the Persians called the Delian league. Its chief officials, including the treasurers and commanders of the fleet, were Athenian. Under Athenian leadership, the Delian league pursued the attack against the Persian Empire, eventually liberating virtually all of the Greek staes in the Aegean from the Persian control. By controlling the Delian League, Athens had created an empire.

  • 4. Delian League
  • 4. a defensive alliance the Athenians formed against the Persians
  • Eventually by controlling the Delian League, Athens had created an empire

Under Pericles, who was a dominant figure in Athenian politics between 461 and 429 B.C., Athens expanded its new empire abroad. At the same time, democracy flourished at home. This period of Athenian and Greek history, which historians have called the Age of Pericles, saw the height of Athenian power and brilliance.

  • 5. Pericles
  • 6. Age of Pericles
  • 5. was a dominant figure in Athenian politics; expanded the empire and democracy
  • 6. saw the height of Athenian power and brilliance

In the Age of Pericles, the Athenians became deeply attached to their democratic system. Most residents of Athens were not citizens. In the mid fifth century B.C., the assembly consisted of about 43,000 male citizens over 18 yrs old. Meetings of the assembly were held every 10 days on a hillside east of the Acropolis. Not all attended, and the number present seldom reached 6,000. The assembly passed all laws, elected public officials, and made final decisions on war and foreign policy. Anyone could speak , but usually only respected leaders did so.

  • 7. direct democracy
  • 7. the people participate directly in government decision making
  • In Athens, every male citizen participated in the governing assembly and voted on all major issues

However, by making lower-class male citizens eligible for public office and by paying officeholders, Pericles made it possible for poor citizens to take part in public affairs. Pericles believed that Athenians should be proud of their democracy. A large body of city officials ran the government on a daily basis. Ten officials known as generals were the overall directors of policy. The generals could be reelected, making it possible for individual leaders to play an important political role. The Athenians also devised the practice of ostracism to protect themselves against overly ambitious politicians.

  • 8. Pericles’ accomplishments
  • 9. ostracism
  • 8. rebuilt Athens after the war with Persia; made lower-class male citizens eligible for public office
  • 9. a person named by at least 6 thousand members as being harmful to the city was banned from the city for 10 years

DO NOW Draw this in your notebook and then read “The Way It Was” on page 118. Contrast the two powerful Greek city-states: Sparta and Athens

  • The two most famous and powerful Greek
  • City-States
  • Sparta
  • Military state
  • oligarchy
  • Athens
  • Academia State
  • Direct democracy

DO NOW

  • DESCRIBE THE SYSTEM OF DIRECT DEMOCRACY IN ATHENS. WHAT TYPE OF DEMOCRACY DO WE HAVE IN THE UNITED STATES? WHY CAN’T THE UNITED STATES HAVE A DIRECT DEMOCRACY?
  • READ PAGE 123 IN YOUR BOOKS UNDER THE SECTION TILED “THE AGE OF PERICLES”

DO NOW

  • DESCRIBE THE SYSTEM OF DIRECT DEMOCRACY IN ATHENS. WHAT TYPE OF DEMOCRACY DO WE HAVE IN THE UNITED STATES? WHY CAN’T THE UNITED STATES HAVE A DIRECT DEMOCRACY?
  • READ PAGE 106 IN YOUR BOOKS UNDER THE SECTION TILED “THE GROWTH OF AN ATHENIAN EMPIRE IN THE AGE OF PERICLES”

Great Peloponnesian War

  • After the defeat of the Persians, the Greek world came to be divided into two major camps: the Athenian Empire and Sparta. Athens and Sparta had built two very different kinds of societies, and neither state was able to tolerate the other’s system. Sparta allies feared the growing Athenian Empire, and a series of disputes finally led to the outbreak of the Great Peloponnesian War in 431 B.C.

At the beginning of the war, both sides believed they had winning strategies. The Athenians planned to remain behind the city’s protective walls and receive supplies from their colonies and navy. The Spartans and their allies surrounded Athens, hoping that the Athenians would send out their army to fight beyond the walls. Pericles knew, however, that the Spartan forces could beat the Athenians in open battles. He also believed that Athens was secure behind its walls, so the Athenians stayed put.

  • 10. Great Peloponnesian War
  • 11. outcome of the war
  • 10. war b/t Sparta and Athens
  • 11. Athens defeated; Greek states separated

Outcome of the Great Peloponnesian War

  • The Great Peloponnesian War weakened the major Greek states and ruined any possibility of cooperation among them. During the next 66 years, Sparta, Athens, and Thebes (a new Greek power) struggled to dominate Greek affairs. In continuing their petty wars, the Greeks ignored the growing power Macedonia to their north. This oversight would cost them their freedom.

In the 5th century B.C., Athens had the largest population of the Greek city-states. Before the plague in 430 B.C., there were about 150,000 citizens living in Athens. About 43,000 of them were adult males with political power. Foreigners living in Athens, were numbered about 35,000, received the protection of the laws. They were also subject to some responsibilities of citizens—namely, military service and the funding of festivals. The remaining social group, the slaves numbered around 100,000.

  • 12. 150,000 citizens; 43,000 males; 35,000 foreigners; 100,000 slaves

Slavery

  • Slavery was common in the ancient world. Most people in Athens—except the very poor—owned at least one slave. The very wealthy might own large numbers. Those who did usually employed them in industry. Most often, slaves in Athens worked in the fields or in the home as cooks and maids. Some slaves were owned by the state and worked on public construction projects.

The Athenian economy was largely based on farming and trade. Athenians grew grains, vegetables, and fruit for local use. The Athenians raised sheet and goats for wool and milk products. Because of the number of people and the lack of fertile land, Athens had to import from 50-80% of its grain, a basic item in the Athenian diet. This meant that trade was highly important to the Athenian economy.

  • 13. Athenian economy
  • 14. exports
  • 15. import
  • 13. based largely on farming and trade
  • 14. fruit, grapes, wine, olive oil
  • 15. 50-80% of grain; because of lack of farmland

The family and the role of women

  • The family was an important institution in ancient Athens. It was composed of a husband, a wife, and children, although other dependent relatives and slaves were also regarded as part of the family. The family’s primary function was to produce new citizens. Women were citizens who could take part in most religious festivals, but they were otherwise excluded from public life. They could not own property beyond personal items. They always had a male guardian, if unmarried, a father; if married a husband; if widowed, a son or male relative.

Women were strictly controlled. Because they married at the age of 14 or 15, they were taught their responsibilities early. Although many managed to learn to read and play musical instruments, they were not provided any formal education. Women were expected to remain at home, out of sight, unless attending funerals or festivals. If they left the house, they had to have a companion.

  • 16. women
  • 16. learned to read; play instruments; role was to bear children and take care of household duties

DO NOW

  • EXPLAIN HOW ACHILLES PORTRAYED THE IDEA OF HOMER’S ARETE.
  • READ PAGE 113 IN YOUR BOOKS UNDER THE SECTION TITLED “HOMER” FOR MORE CLARIFICATION ON ARETE.

DO NOW

  • EXPLAIN HOW ACHILLES PORTRAYED THE IDEA OF HOMER’S ARETE.
  • READ PAGE 99 IN YOUR BOOKS UNDER THE SECTION TITLED “HOMER’S ENDURING IMPORTANCE” FOR MORE CLARIFICATION ON ARETE.

DO NOW: Write this DO NOW in your notes!!!!!!!!

  • What led to the Peloponnesian War? Look at the map on page 124. Analyze the pattern of alliances. What geographical factors affected the ways in which the states are allied? From a geographic standpoint, which side, Sparta or Athens, had an advantage in the war? Explain your answer.

Religion affected every aspect of Greek life. Greeks considered religion necessary to the well-being of the state. Temples dedicated to gods and goddesses were the major buildings in Greek cities. Homer described the gods worshiped in the Greek religion. Twelve chief gods and goddesses were thought to live on Mount Olympus, the highest mountain in Greece. Among the twelve were Zeus, the chief god and father of the gods; Athena, goddess of wisdom and crafts; Apollo, god of the sun and poetry; Ares god of war; Aphrodite, goddess of love, and Poseidon, brother of Zeus and god of the seas and earthquakes.

  • Religion affected every aspect of Greek life. Greeks considered religion necessary to the well-being of the state. Temples dedicated to gods and goddesses were the major buildings in Greek cities. Homer described the gods worshiped in the Greek religion. Twelve chief gods and goddesses were thought to live on Mount Olympus, the highest mountain in Greece. Among the twelve were Zeus, the chief god and father of the gods; Athena, goddess of wisdom and crafts; Apollo, god of the sun and poetry; Ares god of war; Aphrodite, goddess of love, and Poseidon, brother of Zeus and god of the seas and earthquakes.

Section 4: The Culture of Classical Greece

  • 1. Greek religion
  • 1. polytheistic; did not focus on morality; did not have a body of doctrine
  • Spirits of most people regardless of what they had done in life went to a gloomy underworld ruled by the god Hades

Because the Greeks wanted the gods to look favorably upon their activities, rituals became important. Rituals were ceremonies or rites. Greek religious rituals involved prayers often combined with gifts to the gods based on the principle “I give so that you (gods) will give (in return). The Greeks also had a great desire to learn the will of the gods. To do so, they made use of the oracle. The responses by the priests and priestesses were often puzzling and could be interpreted in more than one way. For example, Croesus, king of Lydia and known for his incredible wealth, sent messengers to the oracle at Delphi asking “whether he shall go to war with the Persians.” The oracle replied that if Croesus attacked the Persians, he would destroy a mighty empire. Overjoyed to hear these words, Croesus made war on the Persians and was crushed by his enemy. A mighty empire that of Croesus was destroyed.

  • 2. rituals
  • 3. oracles
  • 2. involved prayers often combined with gifts to the gods
  • 3. a sacred shrine where a god or goddess reveled the future through a priest or priestess

Festivals also developed as a way to honor the gods and goddesses. Certain festivals were held at special locations, such as those dedicated to the worship of Zeus at Olympia or to Apollo at Delphi. Numerous events took place in honor of the gods at the great festivals, including athletic games to which all Greeks were invited. The first such games were held at the Olympic festival in 776 B.C. Greek Drama-plays were presented in outdoor theaters as part of religious festivals

  • 4. festivals
  • 5. tragedies
  • 4. numerous events including athletic games to honor the gods (Olympics)
  • 5. plays in which evil acts are shown to breed suffering; in the end reason triumphs over evil

DO NOW

  • IN WHAT WAYS DID THE GREEKS HONOR THEIR GODS AND GODDESSES. READ PAGE 127-128 UNDER THE SECTION “GREEK RELIGION”

DO NOW

  • IN WHAT WAYS DID THE GREEKS HONOR THEIR GODS AND GODDESSES. READ PAGE 112 UNDER THE SECTION “GREEK RELIGION”

GREEK DRAMA

  • Drama as we know it in Western culture was created by the Greeks. Plays were presented in outdoor theaters as part of religious festivals. The first Greek dramas were tragedies, which were presented in a trilogy (a set of three plays) built around a common theme. The only complete trilogy we possess today, called Oresteia, was composed by Aeschylus. This list of three plays relates the fate of Agamemnon, a hero in the Trojan war. In the plays, evil acts are shown to breed evil acts and suffering. In the end, however, reason triumphs over the forces of evil.

The first Greek dramas were tragedies, which were presented in a trilogy (a set of three plays built around a theme). The only complete trilogy that we possess today, called Oresteia, was composed by Aeschylus. This is a set of three plays which relates the fate of Agamemnon, a hero in the Trojan War, and his family after his return from the war. In the plays, evil acts are shown to breed evil acts and suffering. In the end, however, reason triumphs over the forces of evil.

  • 6. Oresteia
  • 7. Sophocles
  • 6. a trilogy that relates the fate of Agamemnon, a hero in the Trojan war, and his family after his return to war
  • 7. wrote Oedipus Rex

Greek tragedies dealt with universal themes still relevant today. They examined such problems as the nature of good and evil, the rights of the individual, the nature of divine forces, and the nature of human beings. In the world of the Greek tragedies, striving to do the best thing may not always lead to success, but the attempt is a worthy endeavor. Greek pride and accomplishment and independence was real.

  • 8. Greek tragedies themes
  • 8. nature of good and evil, the rights of the individual, nature of divine forces, nature of human beings

Greek Philosophy: Philosophy refers to an organized system of thought. Many early Greek philosophers tried to explain the universe on the basis of unifying principles. In the 6th century B.C., for example, Pythagoras, familiar to geometry students for his Pythagorean theorem, taught that the essence of the universe could be found in music and numbers.

  • 9. philosophy
  • 10. Sophists
  • 9. means “love of wisdom” organized system of thought
  • Early Greek philosophers were concerned with the development of critical or rational thought about the nature of the universe
  • 10. were a group of traveling teachers who stressed the importance of rhetoric

The Sophists were a group of traveling teachers in ancient Greece who rejected speculation such as that of Pythagoras as foolish. They argued that it was simply beyond the reach of the human mind to understand the universe. It was more important for individuals to improve themselves. The sophists sold their services as professional teachers to the young men of Greece, especially those of Athens. The Sophists stressed the importance of rhetoric. To the Sophists, there was no absolute right or wrong. What was right for one individual might be wrong for another. True wisdom consisted of being able to perceive and pursue one’s own good. Because of these ideas, many people viewed the Sophists as harmful to society and especially dangerous to the values of young people.

  • 11. rhetoric
  • 12. Socrates
  • 11. the art of persuasive speaking in winning debates and swaying an audience
  • 12. famous philosopher known for his Socratic Method

Because Socrates left no writings we know about him only what we have learned from the writings of his pupils, such as Plato. He believed that the goal of education was only to improve the individual. Socrates questioned authority, and this soon led him into trouble. Athens had had a tradition of free thought and inquiry, but defeat in the Peloponnesian War changed Athenians. They no longer trusted open debate. Socrates was accused of corrupting the youth of Athens by teaching them to question and think for themselves. An Athenian jury sentenced him to die by drinking hemlock, a poison.

  • 13. Socratic Method
  • 13. teaching uses a question-and-answer format to lead pupils to see things for themselves by using their own reason
  • Socrates believed that all real knowledge is already present within each person

DO NOW

  • WHAT IS PHILOSOPHY????
  • EXPLAIN THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE GREEK PHILOSOPHERS AND SOPHISTS.
  • READ IN YOUR TEXTBOOKS ON PAGE 130 UNDER THE SECTION GREEK PHILOSOPHY.

DO NOW

  • WHAT IS PHILOSOPHY????
  • EXPLAIN THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE GREEK PHILOSOPHERS AND SOPHISTS.
  • READ IN YOUR TEXTBOOKS ON PAGES 110-111 UNDER THE SECTION THE GREEK LOVE OF WISDOM.

One of Socrates’ students was Plato. Unlike his teacher Socrates, who did not write down his thoughts, Plato wrote a great deal. He was fascinated with the question of reality. How do we know what is real. According to Plato, a higher world of eternal unchanging Forms has always existed. These ideal Forms make up reality and only a trained mind—the goal of philosophy—can become aware or understand these Forms. To Plato, the objects that we perceive with our senses (trees, for example) are simply reflections of the ideal Forms (treeness). They (the trees) are but shadows. Reality is found in the Form of treeness itself.

  • 14. Plato
  • 14. famous student of Socrates who was fascinated with the question of reality

DO NOW

  • PHILOSOPHY REFERS TO AN ORGANIZED SYSTEM OF THOUGHT. EARLY GREEK PHILOSOPHERS WERE CONCERNED WITH THE DEVELOPMENT OF CRITICAL OR RATIONAL THOUGHT ABOUT THE NATURE OF THE UNIVERSE.
  • SOPHISTS REJECTED THE IDEA OF UNDERSTANDING THE UNIVERSE. IT WAS MORE IMPORTANT FOR INDIVIDUALS TO IMPROVE THEMSELVES.

Plato established a school in Athens known as the Academy. One of his pupils, who studied at the Academy for 20 years, was Aristotle. Aristotle did not accept Plato’s theory of ideal forms. He thought that by examining individual objects (trees), we could perceive their form (treeness). However, he did not believe that these forms existed in a separate, higher world of reality beyond material things. In other words, we know what treeness is by examining it. Aristotle’s interests, then, lay in analyzing and classifying things based on observation and investigation. His interests were wide ranging. He wrote about many subjects, including ethics, logic, politics, poetry, astronomy, geology, biology, and physics.

  • 15. Aristotle
  • 16. Herodotus
  • 15. a pupil of Plato who study at his Academy for 20yrs
  • 16. wrote the “History of the Persian War”
  • 17. Thucydides
  • 17. Athenian general who fought in the Great Peloponnesian War and later wrote about his experience
  • Was ostracized for losing the war

QUIZ ESSAY #1

  • Contrast the two powerful Greek city-states: Sparta and Athens when it comes to their society and government

DO NOW

  • Look at the map on page 140. Answer the Geography Skills questions at the top of page 140. We are going to take brief notes on section 5 of chp 4 & finish watching the movie.

DO NOW

  • FILL IN THE WEB DIAGRAM BELOW THAT SHOWS WHAT BODIES OF KNOWLEDGE THE GREEKS EXPLORED. LOOK IN YOUR TEXTBOOKS ON PAGES 127-133.
  • Bodies of Knowledge Explored by the Greeks

DO NOW

  • FILL IN THE WEB DIAGRAM BELOW THAT SHOWS WHAT BODIES OF KNOWLEDGE THE GREEKS EXPLORED. LOOK IN YOUR TEXTBOOKS ON PAGES 97-113.
  • Bodies of Knowledge Explored by the Greeks

DO NOW

  • Examine the photograph of the Erechtheum shown below to the right and identify defining architectural characteristics to the photograph of the Peabody Opera House shown below on the left. In what other types of modern buildings would you find examples of classical architecture?

Section 5: Alexander and the Hellenistic Kingdoms

  • The Greeks viewed their northern neighbors, Macedonians, as barbarians. The Macedonians were a rural people organized in groups, not city-states. By the end of the 5th century B.C., however, Macedonia emerged as a powerful kingdom. In 358 B.C., Phillip II came to the throne. He built a powerful army and turned Macedonia into the chief power of the Greek world. Philip was soon drawn into Greek affairs. A great admirer of Greek culture, he longed to unite all of Greece under Macedonia. Philip quickly gained control of all of Greece, bringing an end to the freedom of the Greek city-states. He insisted that the Greek states form a league and then cooperate with him in a war against Persia. Before Philip could undertake his invasion of Asia, however, he was assassinated, leaving the task to this son Alexander.

Section 5: Alexander and the Hellenistic Kingdoms

  • 1. Macedonians
  • 1. were a rural people organized into groups, not city-states
  • By the end of the fifth century B.C., however, Macedonia emerged as a powerful kingdom

2. Philip II

  • 2. Philip II
  • Before Philip could undertake his invasion of Asia and defeat the Persians, he was assassinated leaving his task to his son Alexander
  • 3. Alexander the Great
  • 2. built a powerful army and turned Macedonia into the chief power of the Greek world
  • 3. was only 20 when he became king of Macedonia

Alexander created a new age, the Hellenistic Era. The word Hellenistic is derived from a Greek word meaning “to imitate Greeks”. It is an appropriate way, then, to describe an age that saw the expansion of the Greek language and ideas to the non-Greek world of Southwest Asia and beyond. The united empire that Alexander created by his conquests fell apart soon after his death as the most important Macedonian generals engaged in a struggle for power. By 300 B.C., any hope of unity was dead. Eventually, four Hellenistic kingdoms emerged as the successors to Alexander: Macedonia, Syria in the east, the kingdom of Pergamum in western Asia Minor, and Egypt. All were eventually conquered by the Romans.

  • 4. Hellenistic Era
  • 4. an age the saw the expansion of Greek culture to the non-Greek world of Southwest Asia and beyond

Architecture and Sculpture:The founding of new cities and rebuilding of old ones presented many opportunities for Greek architects and sculptors. Hellenistic kings were very willing to spend their money to beautify the cities within their states. The buildings characteristic of the Greek homeland baths, theaters, and temples—lined the streets and these cities.

  • 5. architecture and sculpture
  • 5. sculpture moved away from the idealism and earlier classicism and moved to a more emotional and realistic art

DO NOW

  • WHY IS ALEXANDER CALLED “GREAT”? DO YOU THINK THE TITLE IS JUSTIFIED? WHY OR WHY NOT?
  • READ IN YOUR TEXTBOOKS ON PAGES 139-141 IN THE SECTION TITLED “ALEXANDER THE GREAT”

DO NOW

  • WHY IS ALEXANDER CALLED “GREAT”? DO YOU THINK THE TITLE IS JUSTIFIED? WHY OR WHY NOT?
  • READ IN YOUR TEXTBOOKS ON PAGES 114-117 IN THE SECTION TITLED “ALEXANDER THE GREAT”

Literature:The Hellenistic Age produced an enormous quantity of literature. Writing talent was held in high esteem, especially by Hellenistic leaders who spend large amounts of money subsidizing writers. Unfortunately very little of this literature has survived.

  • 6. literature
  • 6. writing was held in high esteem during the Hellenistic Era (epic poems, short stories, comedy plays)

Science

  • Aristarchus-developed the theory that the sun is at the center of the universe while the Earth rotates around the sun in a circular orbit
  • Erastothenes-determined that the earth was round and calculated its circumference
  • Euclid- wrote the Elements a textbook on plane geography
  • Archimedes-known for his work on geometry of spheres and cylinders; establishing value of pi

Philosophy: After the time of Alexander the Great, the home of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle continued to attract the most famous philosophers from the Greek world, who chose to establish their schools there. New systems of thought Epicureanism and Stoicism strengthened Athens’ reputation as a philosophical center.

  • 7. Epicureanism
  • 8. Stoicism
  • 7. believed that human beings were free to follow self-interest as a basic motivating force
  • 8. was concerned with happiness and being a good citizen

DO NOW

  • DESCRIBE THE THEMES FOUND IN GREEK TRAGEDIES THAT ARE STILL RELEVANT IN POEMS, NOVELS, AND MOVIES TODAY!
  • Explain Homer’s influence on Greek civilization? HINT (WHAT DOES ARETE MEAN AND HOW DOES IT INFLUENCE GREEK SOCIETIES???????
  • READ PAGES 112-113 IN THE SECTION TITLED HOMER”
  • READ PAGES 129 IN THE SECTION TITLED “GREEK DRAMA”

DO NOW

  • DESCRIBE THE THEMES FOUND IN GREEK TRAGEDIES THAT ARE STILL RELEVANT IN POEMS, NOVELS, AND MOVIES TODAY!
  • Explain Homer’s influence on Greek civilization? HINT (WHAT DOES ARETE MEAN AND HOW DOES IT INFLUENCE GREEK SOCIETIES???????
  • READ PAGES 99-100 IN THE SECTION TITLED HOMER’S ENDURING IMPORTANCE”
  • READ PAGES 108-109 IN THE SECTION TITLED “GREEK DRAMA”

DO NOW

  • GREEK COLONIZATION: CAUSE AND EFFECT
  • A. INCREASED TRADE/WEALTH
  • B. COLONIZATION
  • C. SPREAD OF GREEK CULTURE
  • D. LACK OF FARMLAND
  • PUT A, B, C, AND D IN THE CORRECT ORDER!!!!!!!!!!!!!

DO NOW

  • Explain how the Greeks praise the gods and goddesses??????
  • How do the Greeks communicate with the gods and goddesses???

DO NOW

  • DESCRIBE THE GREEK THEMES FOUND IN THE MOVIE “TROY”
  • IF YOU NEED HELP REMEMBERING THE GREEK THEMES, READ PAGE 129 IN THE SECTION TITLED “GREEK DRAMA”

DO NOW

  • DESCRIBE THE GREEK THEMES FOUND IN THE MOVIE “TROY”
  • IF YOU NEED HELP REMEMBERING THE GREEK THEMES, READ PAGE 108 IN THE SECTION TITLED “GREEK DRAMA”

DO NOW

  • WHAT WERE SOME OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT’S GOALS FOR HIS EMPIRE?
  • READ PAGES 139-141 IN YOUR TEXTBOOKS IN THE SECTION TITLED “ALEXANDER THE GREAT”

DO NOW

  • WHAT WERE SOME OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT’S GOALS FOR HIS EMPIRE?
  • READ PAGES 114-117 IN YOUR TEXTBOOKS IN THE SECTION TITLED “ALEXANDER THE GREAT”

DO NOW

  • “Our constitution,” Pericles said, “is called a democracy because power is in the hands not of a minority but of the whole people. When it is a question of settling private disputes, everyone is equal before the law; when it is a question of putting one person before another in positions of public responsibility, what counts is not membership in a particular class, but the actual ability which the man possesses.”
  • According to Pericles, a democracy is best defined as ____.
  • a.power in the hands of all the people
  • b.power in the hands of the majority of people
  • c.power in the hands of a minority of people
  • d.power in the hands of one person


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