Bibliographic Citations



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Bibliographic Citations

  • Citation Style The Chicago Manual of Style
  • Dr Narender Kumar
  • Deputy Librarian
  • Delhi University Library System
  • University of Delhi, Delhi 110007

Bibliographic Citations

  • Summary
  • Introduction.
  • Need and Importance.
  • What is Plagiarism ?
  • What constitutes plagiarism ?
  • How can you avoid plagiarizing?
  • Sources that need to be credited or acknowledged.
  • Some tips on preventing plagiarism.
  • Different Manuals of Style.
  • The Chicago Manual of Style.
      • General Guidelines
      • How to cite different sources: Rules and examples

Bibliographic Citations

  • Introduction.
  • A citation is a credit or reference to another document or source which documents both influence and authority. There are many rules for the format and use of such citations in different fields: Varying rules and practices for citations apply in a science, a law, a theological citing of authority, the prior art that applies in patent law, or marks applied in copyright.

Bibliographic Citations

  • Need and Importance.
      • Academic Indebtness
      • Relationship between citing and cited documents
      • Authenticity
      • Uniformity/Standardization
      • Further Readings
      • Identification of the cited documents
      • Distinguishing among the same type of documents
      • Locating the cited documents
      • Importance of high quality reference list: To avoid duplication of research

Bibliographic Citations

  • What is Plagiarism ?
  • Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary defines Plagiarism using another's words and ideas and passing them on as your own. Words, ideas, or knowledge are considered the Intellectual Property of the original author. U.S. Copyright Law protects the author. When others, including students, use an author's work and present it as their own without giving proper credit, they are dishonest, and this leads to plagiarism
  • "Plagiarism - representing the words or ideas of another as one's own in any academic activity”.

Bibliographic Citations

  • What constitutes plagiarism?
  • Turning in another person's work as your own, and this includes a paper from free website.
  • Copying a paper, an excerpt, a paragraph, or a line from a source without proper acknowledgement (these can be from a print source, such as a book, journal, monograph, map, chart, or pamphlet, or from a nonprint source, such as the web and online databases
  • Taking materials from a source, supplying proper documentation, but leaving out quotation marks

Bibliographic Citations

  • What constitutes plagiarism: Contd…
  • Paraphrasing materials from a source without documentation of that source.
  • Purchasing a paper from a research service or a commercial term paper mill .
  • Sharing or swapping from a local source (from student papers that were previously submitted).
  • Creating invalid or faked citations

Bibliographic Citations

  • How can you avoid plagiarizing?
  • Acknowledge the sources by giving credit. If you don't, intentionally or not, it is plagiarism.

Bibliographic Citations

  • P-Sources: Books, Periodicals, Theses, Dissertations, Conference Proceedings, Pamphlets, Charts, Statistics, Maps
  • E-Resources: Internet, Online databases, and many other types of material. When credit is properly attributed, you reduce the chance of plagiarizing.
  • Sources that need to be credited or acknowledged.

Reasons of Errors

  • Lack of Standardization in Citation Format
  • Misunderstanding of Foreign Language
  • General Human Inabilities to Reproduce Long String of Information Correctly
  • Lack of verification of original document
  • Lack of Training
  • (Errors in citations raise doubts about the validity of the research)

Classic Example of Error

  • In 1887 Jaroslav Hlava (Czech) published a paper titled ‘O Uplavici: Subtitle’ means “on dysentery”. Unfortunately a German journal instead of Hlava entered the item under ‘O Uplavici’. In 1910 the author “O Uplavici” became Dr O Uplavici. The paper continued to be miscited until the error discovered in 1938

Bibliographic Citations

  • Some tips on preventing plagiarism:
  • Be organized - From the onset of a research project, establish order while gathering information. This will help to alleviate confusion and problems, especially when the time comes for the bibliography, works cited, and reference pages to be prepared

Bibliographic Citations

  • Some tips on preventing plagiarism:
  • Use a note card to identify the following:
  • Source (citation) - common sources:
    • Book: Author, Title, Publisher, Place and Year of publication
    • Periodical: Author, Title of Article and Periodical, Year, Vol. Issue and Pages
    • Internet: URL/Web Address, Author ,Title, and the Date on which the site was accessed (one web page has average life of 75 days)
  • Quotes - note the page numbers, enclose quoted material in quotation marks, and include a link to the source.
  • Paraphrasing/Summarizing - in your notes, indicate points and ideas in your own words and, again, create a parenthetical reference to the source.

Bibliographic Citations

  • Which should you use? There are app 250 citation manuals. You can use any or follow these guidelines:
  • American Psychological Association (APA): psychology, education, and other social sciences.
  • Modern Language Association (MLA): literature, arts, and humanities.
  • American Medical Association (AMA): medicine, health, and biological sciences.
  • Chicago Manual of Style: used with all subjects in the real world by books, magazines, newspapers, and other non-scholarly publications.
  • Bureau of Indian Standards IS:2381-1978

Bibliographic Citations

  • The Chicago Manual of Style
  • Allows for two different types of reference styles:
  • The Author-Date System used in physical, and, natural sciences, and
  • Notes and Bibliography Style used in literature, history, social sciences, and the arts.
  • The ongoing presentation is based on 15th ed.

Bibliographic Citations

  • GENERAL GUIDELINES
  • Hang Style Indentation—In the reference lists, all lines except the first are indented (typically 3 to 5 spaces, as you choose).
  • Punctuation—(Rule: 16.15) Periods are generally used between elements in reference lists. Commas separate the date from any page reference in notes. A colon separates titles from subtitles, the place of publication from the publisher, and volume information from page numbers for journal articles.

Bibliographic Citations

  • GENERAL GUIDELINES contd…
  • Fonts—(Rule: 16.16) Use italics for titles of periodicals (i.e., Journal of Social Activism) and books (i.e., History of India). Use roman for journal article titles (do not use quotation marks).
  • Capitalization—(Rules: 16.17, 16.96-7) Use sentence-style capitalization in titles and subtitles of works and parts of works such as articles or chapters (i.e., Biology: Science for life). Use headline-style capitalization for titles of periodicals (i.e., Journal of Social Activism).

Bibliographic Citations

  • GENERAL GUIDELINES contd…
  • Authors’ names—(Rules: 16.11, 16.99) In reference lists, the first author’s last name is inverted (last name first). First names should usually be provided, when available.
  • Abbreviations—(Rules: 16.100) Use ed. Or trans. For “editor” or “edited by” or “translator” or “translated by.” University may be abbreviated Univ. Months may be abbreviated. Be consistent.
  • For Standard abbreviation for Social Science you can use Social Science Citation Index.

Bibliographic Citations

  • GENERAL GUIDELINES contd…
  • Publication Place—(Rules: 17.96, 17.99) If more than one place is given, the first is generally sufficient. Do not abbreviate place names. Give the city and state or country if the city is not well known for publishing or is ambiguous.

Bibliographic Citations

  • Item category :Book - (one author)
  • Humanities & Soc Sc (Notes & Bibliographic Style)
  • 1. Sunil Gupta, Splitting the Difference
  • (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999).
  • Gupta, Sunil. Splitting the Difference. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999.

Bibliographic Citations

  • Item category : Book - (two to three authors)
  • Humanities & Soc Sc (Notes & Bibliographic Style)
  • 2. Sunil Gupta and Robin Singh, Primate Conservation Biology (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000).
  • Gupta, Sunil, and Robin Singh. Primate Conservation Biology. Chicago: University of Press, 2000.

Bibliographic Citations

  • Item category : Book – (more than three authors)
  • Humanities & Soc Sc (Notes & Bibliographic Style)
  • 3. Mukesh Sharma et al., The Social Organization of Sexuality: Sexual Practices in the United States (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994).
  • Sharma, Mukesh, John H. Gagnon, Robert T. Michael, and Stuart Michaels. The Social Organization of Sexuality: Sexual Practices in the United States. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994.

Bibliographic Citation

  • Book by Editor, translator, or compiler
  • Humanities & Soc Sc (Notes & Bibliographic Style)
  • 4. Sriram Mathur, trans., The Iliad of Homer
  • (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951).
  • Mathur, Sriram, trans. The Iliad of Homer. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951.

Bibliographic Citation

  • Chapter or other part of a book
  • Humanities & Soc Sc (Notes & Bibliographic Style)
  • 5. Surender K Gupta, “A Note on Old High German Umlaut,” in Readings in Linguistics I: The Development of Descriptive Linguistics in America, 1925–1956, 4th ed., ed. Martin Joos (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1957).
  • Gupta, Surender K. “A Note on Old High German Umlaut.” In Readings in Linguistics I: The Development of Descriptive Linguistics in America, 1925–1956. 4th ed. Edited by Martin Joos. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1957.

Bibliographic Citation

  • Book published in both printed and electronic forms (N.B.: be sure that you must clear that which form was consulted; however, there is no need to indicate “paper” in a citation to a traditional bound book)
  • Humanities & Soc Sc (Notes & Bibliographic Style)
  • 2. Dinesh Gupta and Arjun Singh, eds., The Founders’ Constitution (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987), 115.
  • Gupta, Dinesh and Arjun Singh, eds. The Founders’ Constitution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987. Also available online at
  • http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/
  • and as a CD-ROM.

Bibliographic Citations

  • Item category : Journal Article
  • Humanities & Soc Sc (Notes & Bibliographic Style)
  • 8. Naushad Ali, “The Origin of Altruism,” Nature 393 (1998): 639–40.
  • Ali, Naushad. “The Origin of Altruism.” Nature 393 (1998): 639–40.

Bibliographic Citations

  • Theses and dissertations
  • Humanities & Soc Sc (Notes & Bibliographic Style)
  • 12. Rajesh Sharma, “Click Repetition Rate Patterns in Communicative Sounds from the Harbour Porpoise, Phocoena phocoena” (Ph.D. diss., Stockholm University, 1991), 22–29, 35.
  • Sharma, Rajesh, “Click Repetition Rate Patterns in Communicative Sounds from the Harbour Porpoise, Phocoena phocoena.” Ph.D. diss., Stockholm University, 1991.

Bibliographic Citations

  • Paper presented at a meeting or conference
  • Humanities & Soc Sc (Notes & Bibliographic Style)
  • 13. Brian Doyle, “Howling Like Dogs: Metaphorical Language in Psalm 59” (paper presented at the annual international meeting for the Society of Biblical Literature, Berlin, Germany, June 19–22, 2002), 15–16.
  • Doyle, Brian. “Howling Like Dogs: Metaphorical Language in Psalm 59.” Paper presented at the annual international meeting for the Society of Biblical Literature, Berlin, Germany, June 19–22, 2002.

Electronic Resources

  • 17.4 Introduction
  • In recent years, electronic content and the online environment have become major components of academic work. The nature of electronic media, however, requires that authors keep the following characteristics in mind when consulting them in the course of their research.

Electronic Resources

  • 17.5 Permanence.
  • Whatever archiving, retrieval, and linking techniques may be in place in the future, electronic content by its very nature will continue to be impermanent and manipulable. If a source changes or becomes unavailable, citations to that source may need to be adjusted; authors and publishers should therefore verify the accuracy of citations to electronic content as close to the publication date as possible.

Electronic Resources

  • 17.6 Authority.
  • As for any other medium, authors should consider the publisher or sponsoring body when assessing electronic content. Content presented without formal ties to a publisher or sponsoring body has authority equivalent to that of unpublished or self-published material in other media. Authors should note, however, that anything posted on the Internet is “published” in the sense of copyright and must be treated as such for the purposes of complete citation and clearance of permissions, if relevant.

Electronic Resources

  • 17.7 Content available from multiple online sources.
  • When content is available from more than one online source, authors should consider whether, on the basis of the nature and practices of the publisher or sponsoring body, they have consulted the most permanent.

Electronic Resources

  • 17.8 Publications available in both print and electronic forms.
  • In many cases the content of the print and electronic forms of the same publication is identical, but the potential for differences, intentional or otherwise, requires that authors cite the form consulted. Other forms of the same publication may be mentioned in the citation when helpful to readers so long as the language makes it clear that the author did not in fact consult these other forms.

Electronic Resources

  • 17.9 Uniform resource locators (URLs).
  • A URL, sometimes referred to as an “address,” is an expression of the location of a file. Every URL begins with an abbreviation of the protocol used to deliver electronic material to readers. The most common are http (hypertext transfer protocol) and ftp (File transfer protocol). This abbreviation is invariably followed by a colon and a double slash, after which appears the publisher’s domain name, followed by the path to the resource. Components following the domain name are separated from the domain name and from each other by single slashes.

Electronic Resources

  • 17.9 Uniform resource locators Contd…
  • http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/JMH/journal/issues/v72n4/002401/002401.html.
  • The URL above refers to an article—file name 002401.html, in volume 72, issue 4, of the journal of Modern History—published by the University of Chicago Press. Authors and editors are encouraged to pursue at least a basic understanding of the typical components of URLs, if only to help them spot typos.

Electronic Resources

  • 17.10 URLs and punctuation.
  • Even if it follows a period, the first letter of the protocol (e.g. ,the h in http) is not capitalized. The capitalization of the remaining components varies; because some URLs are case sensitive, they should not be edited for style. A “trailing slash,” the last character in a URL pointing to a directory, is part of the URL.

Electronic Resources

  • 17.10 URLs and punctuation. Contd…
  • Other punctuation marks used following a URL will readily be perceived as belonging to the surrounding text. It is therefore unnecessary to omit appropriate punctuation after the URL or to bracket the URL as a matter of course. Any logically parenthetical reference to a URL should be put in parentheses; angle brackets (< >), which have specific meaning within some markup languages, including html, should never be used to enclose a URL

Electronic Resources

  • 17.11 URLs and line breaks.
  • In a printed work, if a URL has to be broken at the end of a line, the break should be made after a double slash (//) or a single slash(/); before a tilde(~), a period, a comma, a hyphen, an underline(_), a question mark, a number sign, or a percent symbol; or before or after an equals sign or an ampersand. A hyphen should never be added to a URL to denote a line break, nor should a hyphen that is part of a URL appear at the end of a line.
  • http:// press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/
  • http://www.uiowa.edu/-vpr/research/organize/humalink.htm
  • http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/b.cgi?artid= 1961
  • http;//www.internetnews.com/ecnews/article/0,,4_353451,00html

Electronic Resources

  • 17.12 Access dates.
  • Access dates in online source citations are of limited value, since previous versions will often be unavailable to readers (not to mention that an author may have consulted several revisions across any number of days in the course of research). Chicago therefore does not generally recommend including them in a published citation. For sources likely to have substantive updates, however , or in time-sensitive fields such as medicine or law where even small corrections may be significant, the date of the author’s last visit to the site may usefully be added.

Electronic Resources

  • 17.13 Revision dates
  • Though some Internet sites may state the date of the last revision, this practice is neither universal nor necessarily reliable. The revision date therefore should not be given in addition to or in lieu of the access date.

Bibliographic Citation

  • Web Sites for Bibliographic Citation Manual
  • http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/access/trial.epl

Bibliographic Citation

  • Bibliographic Citation Manual
  • Chicago Manual of Style
  • http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/access/trial.epl
  • Web of Science
  • http://apps.isiknowledge.com/
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