Application programming interface api sharing and reuse via virtual machine



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Application programming interface API sharing and reuse via virtual machine

  • Some languages like those running in a virtual machine (e.g. .NET CLI compliant languages in the Common Language Runtime and JVM compliant languages in the Java Virtual Machine) can share API.

Application programming interface API sharing and reuse via virtual machine

  • In this case the virtual machine enables the language interoperation thanks to the common denominator of the virtual machine that abstracts from the specific language using an intermediate bytecode and its language binding.

Common Lisp Exponentiating by squaring

  • Use of the LOOP macro is demonstrated:

Common Lisp Exponentiating by squaring

  • Compare with the built in exponentiation:

Internet Relay Chat File sharing

  • Much like conventional P2P file sharing, users can create file servers that allow them to share files with each other by using customised IRC bots or scripts for their IRC client. Often users will group together to distribute warez via a network of IRC bots.

Internet Relay Chat File sharing

  • The vast majority of IRC clients feature support for DCC file transfers, hence the view that file sharing is an integral feature of IRC

Dot-com bubble Soaring stocks

  • In financial markets, a stock market bubble is a self-perpetuating rise or boom in the share prices of stocks of a particular industry

Dot-com bubble Soaring stocks

  • American news media, including respected business publications such as Forbes and the Wall Street Journal, encouraged the public to invest in risky companies, despite many of the companies' disregard for basic financial and even legal principles.

Dot-com bubble Soaring stocks

  • Andrew Smith argued that the financial industry's handling of IPOs tended to benefit the banks and initial investors rather than the company

Dot-com bubble Soaring stocks

  • "But did the kids [the often young dotcom entrepreneurs] dupe the establishment by drawing them into fake companies, or did the establishment dupe the kids by introducing them to Mammon and charging a commission on it?"

Dot-com bubble Soaring stocks

  • In spite of this, however, a few company founders made vast fortunes when their companies were bought out at an early stage in the dot-com stock market bubble. These early successes made the bubble even more buoyant. An unprecedented amount of personal investing occurred during the boom, and the press reported the phenomenon of people quitting their jobs to become full-time day traders.

Classified information Sharing classified information between countries

  • When a government agency or group shares information between an agency or group of other country’s government they will generally employ a special classification scheme that both parties have previously agreed to honour.

Classified information Sharing classified information between countries

  • For example the marking ATOMAL, is applied to U.S. RESTRICTED DATA or FORMERLY RESTRICTED DATA and United Kingdom ATOMIC information that has been released to NATO. ATOMAL information is marked COSMIC TOP SECRET ATOMAL (CTSA), NATO SECRET ATOMAL (NSAT), or NATO CONFIDENTIAL ATOMAL (NCA).

Classified information Sharing classified information between countries

  • In cases where a country wishes to share classified information bilaterally (or multilaterally) with a country that has a sharing agreement, the information is with the countries it can be shared with. Those countries would have to maintain the classification of the document at the level originally classified (TOP-SECRET, SECRET, etc.) with the appropriate caveat (USNZ, AUSGE, CANUK, etc.).

BitTorrent Downloading torrents and sharing files

  • Users find a torrent of interest, by browsing the web or by other means, download it, and open it with a BitTorrent client. The client connects to the tracker(s) specified in the torrent file, from which it receives a list of peers currently transferring pieces of the file(s) specified in the torrent. The client connects to those peers to obtain the various pieces. If the swarm contains only the initial seeder, the client connects directly to it and begins to request pieces.

BitTorrent Downloading torrents and sharing files

  • Clients incorporate mechanisms to optimize their download and upload rates; for example they download pieces in a random order to increase the opportunity to exchange data, which is only possible if two peers have different pieces of the file.

BitTorrent Downloading torrents and sharing files

  • The effectiveness of this data exchange depends largely on the policies that clients use to determine to whom to send data

BitTorrent Downloading torrents and sharing files

  • Although swarming scales well to tolerate flash crowds for popular content, it is less useful for unpopular content

BitTorrent Downloading torrents and sharing files

  • However, there are ways to promote anonymity; for example, the OneSwarm project layers privacy-preserving sharing mechanisms on top of the original BitTorrent protocol.

Big cat Roaring

  • The ability to roar comes from an elongated and specially adapted larynx and hyoid apparatus. (However, neither the snow leopard nor the cheetah can roar, despite having hyoid morphology similar to roaring cats.) When air passes through the larynx on the way from the lungs, the cartilage walls of the larynx vibrate, producing sound. The lion's larynx is longest, giving it the most robust roar.

Computer multitasking Cooperative multitasking/time-sharing

  • The use of time sharing made this possible, with the qualification that the computer would not seem as fast to any one user as it really would be if it were running only that user's program.


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