Any “unusual” or highly specific piece of information, regardless of whether it is paraphrased or cited directly, should come with page numbers.
Paraphrasing or quoting?, cont.
Directly cited material should fulfill this criterion:
1) If paraphrasing borrowed information detracts from that information’s explanatory power or uniqueness, it should be quoted directly.
“I have a dream.”—Martin Luther King, Jr.
Martin Luther King noted that a dream was something that he had.
Mechanics of direct citations
If you must directly cite someone, page numbers are required for EACH citation.
The abbreviation “p.” is used for a single page. Example: (Doe, 2007, p. 7).
The abbreviation “pp.” is used for multiple pages. Example: (Doe, 2007, pp. 21-22).
Quotations 40 words or over must be put in a block quotation.
Indent ALL lines of the quotation one inch. DO NOT place the information in quotation marks. Double space the entire quotation.
Provide the page numbers at the end of the citation.
Basics of in-text citations
When citing an author, you have the choice of placing the name followed by the year at the beginning of the sentence or in a parenthetical citation at the end.
Doe (2007) found that rats cannot vomit.
A recent study of rats found that they cannot vomit (Doe, 2007).
Famous Reprinted Works
Freud (1901/2007) asserted that the superego is created from the shattered remnants of a resolved Oedipal complex.
In The Republic, the Guardians do not own property (Plato, trans. 1997).
Basics of in-text citations, cont.
Cite the last names of both authors EACH TIME the source is used:
Doe and Koenig (2007) note that modern Western political idealism has its basis in the writings of Immanuel Kant.
Modern Western political idealism has its basis in the writings of Immanuel Kant (Doe & Koenig, 2007).
Basics—The ampersand versus “and”
When citing multiple authors in text, you will use either “and” or the ampersand ( “& “) depending on where you decide to put the citation.
If you incorporate the authors’ names into a sentence, you will need to make it grammatically correct, so “and” will be used:
Feckless, Porpora, and Buxtehude (2004) found that in the early 1990s the world, on average, used about 13.1 terawatts of electricity each year.
If, however, you want to put the parenthetical citation at the end, the ampersand is used:
In the early 1990s the world, on average, used about 13.1 terawatts of electricity each year (Feckless, Porpora, & Buxtehude, 2004).
Three to Five authors
Cite the last names of ALL authors the first time it is used:
Doe, Koenig, and Porpora (1998) note that constructivism is becoming a more popular theory in political science.
The next citation in the paper will be the following:
Doe et al. (1998) found that most political scientists prefer synthesizing political theories.
If you cite the authors again in the same paragraph:
Doe et al. demand further research into Marxism’s place on the world stage.
Basics of in-text citations
Six or more authors
Cite only the first author followed by “et al.” for each in-text citation:
Mearsheimer et al. (2008) assert that neo-realism as a theoretical paradigm is experiencing a backlash.
Neo-realism as a theoretical paradigm is experiencing a backlash (Mearsheimer et al., 2008).
Same author(s) with the same publication year
Some authors out there release A LOT of material, sometimes in the same year. Suppose you have material by the same author that are all published in the same year….
In this instance, alphabetize the sources based upon the TITLE of the work. Then, assign a lower-case letter for each source.
Doe, J. (2008a). Egyptian death rituals. Journal of Egyptian History, 9(2), 90- 123.
Doe, J. (2008b). Tutankhamen: Egypt’s boy pharaoh. Cairo: National Publishing.
In the text, you would cite them as follows:
Doe (2008a) notes that Egyptian death rituals were highly complex. In the case of Tutankhamen, the boy pharaoh was adorned in a highly ritualized fashion with precious metals and jewelry (Doe, 2008b). However, most Egyptians could not afford these expensive accoutrements but were buried with valuables nonetheless, such as amulets, scarabs made of semi-precious metals, or even toys (Doe, 2008a, p. 99).
Notice how even though the same author is being used, you are required to indicate when you switch between the two different sources by indicating the “a” and “b” of the publication information.
Citing several studies
At times it is necessary to draw attention to numerous sources coming to similar conclusions.
When making statements like “Several studies found” or “Many researchers have noted,” examples MUST be provided and listed alphabetically
Numerous studies (Gills, 2006; Josper, 2001; Zirconia, 2005) have sought to define the importance of Davos culture in international bargaining agreements.
No author and/or date listed
At times, no author is listed. This most often happens with encyclopedia and dictionary entries and some online sources. In this instance, use the shortened title of the work in a parenthetical citation at the END of the referenced material.
Coronal mass ejections can greatly disrupt satellite communications (“Coronal mass ejections,” 2005).
Also, some sources do not have publication dates listed. This most often happens with online sources. This is typically highly suspicious, and these types of sources should be avoided. For a source with no date listed, use “n.d.” to signify that there is no date listed.
Moreover, it is noted that most people prefer Prada over Dolce and Gabanna (“Brand preferences,” n.d.).
As with all titles, only capitalize the first letter of the first word, the first letter of the first word after a colon, and the first letter of ANY proper noun.
Switching sources mid-sentence
At times you will have to switch sources mid-sentence. In these instances, it is best to cite the source DIRECTLY AFTER the information rather than lumping all of the citations at the end:
While most individuals in Germany have a working knowledge of classical composition techniques (Porpora, 1998), the vast majority of Germans do not have similar knowledge about Baroque composition (Feckless, 1999) or late-Renaissance a capella techniques (Listing, 2001).
Personal communications include e-mails, interviews, telephone conversations, class lectures, or ANYTHING THAT DOESN’T PROVIDE RECOVERABLE DATA.
These types of sources TYPICALLY WILL NOT go into your References page.
Many teachers, however, require personal communications to be cited in the References page. In that instance, follow your teacher’s instructions.
Personal Communications, cont.
To cite these in-text, do the following:
For example, human evolutionary psychology is an emerging field that can provide insights into nationalist behaviors (M. Pratarelli, personal communication, August 29, 2001).
If you obtain great information from a source via e-mail, the exact copy of the e-mail can be placed in an Appendix attached to the paper. We will review how to create Appendices later in this presentation.
Organizations as authors
Very often, organizations will be cited as the authors of documents.
This most often happens with government departments or private industries.
When citing organizations as authors, place the organization’s name in the author’s position in the same manner you would if you were citing a human author.
Organizations as authors
The National Institute of Mental Health (2005) notes that the national prevalence for schizophrenia is 1%.
The national prevalence for schizophrenia is 1% (National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 2005).
After mentioning the corporate author in such a fashion, you can use the acronym for subsequent citations.
Electronic sources are cited in text in the same fashion as print sources.
Very often, you will need to cite a chapter or an article within a larger anthology.
Suppose you are using an article in an edited book; the article is about the role of parietal cortex in cognition. How do you do this? SIMPLE!
Let’s say that the article is Memory and cognition: Probing the parietal cortex written by Jane Horrocks in 2001. The article is in the book Principles of cognitive psychology edited by Georg Listing.
For the in-text citation, you will cite Horrocks (2001) as the author.
Example: Horrocks (2001) notes that sensory modalities play an important role in cognition with the right parietal cortex being heavily involved in time perception.
For the References page, you will cite it as such:
Horrocks, J. (2001). Memory and cognition: Probing the parietal cortex. In G. Listing (ed.), Principles of cognitive psychology (pp. 99-110). Davenport, CT: Parietal Publishing.
Figures, Graphs, Tables, and Appendices
Typically, APA requires figures, graphs, and tables to be placed in an Appendix AFTER the References page.
Some professors, however, want the data directly in the paper itself.
What is also important is whether YOU GENERATED the figure, graph, or table or whether you are BORROWING it/them.
If YOU generated the graph, label it (Graph 1, Graph 2, Table 1, etc.) and refer to it in the paper.
…as shown in Table 8, most respondents indicated a preference for Prada.
Ask your professor if he or she wants the figure/graph/table DIRECTLY in the paper or in an appendix.
Figures, Graphs, Tables, and Appendices
If you are BORROWING a figure/graph/table, a note MUST accompany it. Place the note BELOW the figure/graph/table with the following information:
Note. From “Title of Article,” by J. Doe and J. Horrocks, 2008, Journal of Ethology Studies , 50(6), p. 92. Copyright 2008 by Name of Copyright Holder.
The References page is a list of all the research you referenced (or used) while writing your paper. It is ordered alphabetically by author, whether human or organizational.
DO NOT divide your sources based upon type, e.g., don’t put all the electronic sources, or books, or journal articles in their own categories.
If you use a source without an author listed, use the first letter of the title as the means for placing it in the alphabetical list.
Reference pages, cont.
For References pages, observe the following rules:
Cite the author’s or authors’ last name(s) in full BUT ONLY USE THE INITIALS OF THE FIRST AND ANY MIDDLE NAMES.
Example: Doe, J., Kilper, G.H.P., & Feckless, T. (2001).
When citing titles, capitalize only: 1) The first letter of the first word; 2) the first letter of the first word after a colon; 3) The first letter of any proper noun or an adjective that when in its noun form is proper.
Example: Mastication and deglutition: A comparison between Canadian and American rats.
Reference pages, cont.,
Book titles are italicized. APA’s 6th edition also specifies how to cite books/journals from print sources, which have DOIs (digital object identifiers), and from websites
Doe, J. (2001). How Rome conquered Gaul. Paris: Pater Patriae Publishing.
Doe, J. (2002). How Gaul was conquered by Rome. Retrieved from
Doe, J. (2003). How Gaul was conquered and how Rome conquered it. Paris: Pater Patriae Publishing. doi: xxxxxxxxx