Apa documentation (6th ed.): A self-Paced Tutorial



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APA Documentation (6th ed.): A Self-Paced Tutorial

  • Sherry Wynn Perdue, Director
  • Oakland University Writing Center
  • wynn@oakland.edu
  • (248) 370-3105
  • Running head: SELF-PACED APA TUTORIAL 1
  • A Self-Paced APA Tutorial
  • Sherry Wynn Perdue
  • Oakland University
  • OUWC's APA Tutorial

SELF-PACED APA TUTORIAL 2

  • SELF-PACED APA TUTORIAL 2
  • Abstract
  • Client requests for APA documentation assistance have been on the rise at the Oakland University Writing Center (OUWC) since its October 2006 opening. Research and anecdotal evidence suggest that most faculty direct students to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, an abridged version of its contents, or the writing center in lieu of teaching APA style. In the absence of direct instruction—and even when it is available in some form—many students struggle to comprehend the manual much less to apply APA conventions. As such, Wynn Perdue has developed a user friendly tutorial on APA basics, which is tied to the 6th edition (2009). Designed as a user tool, this tutorial overviews such concerns as representing authors and punctuating titles in running text and reference pages, constructing a title page with a running head, and documenting both print and digital texts.
  • OUWC's APA Tutorial

What is the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA)?

  • In the words of its editors:
      • the style manual of choice for writers, editors, students, educators, and professionals in psychology and the behavioral sciences, sociology, business, economics, nursing, social work, criminology and justice administration, and other disciplines in which effective communication with words and data is fundamental.
  • OUWC's APA Tutorial

What is APA’s Organizational Scheme?

  • An author-date citation and parenthetical documentation system, which is tied to a “References” list organized alphabetically by surname.
  • OUWC's APA Tutorial
  • In text:
  • Tyler (2007) introduced readers to the efficacy of storytelling in HRD.
  • “Incorporating Storytelling into Practice”demonstrated the potential of storytelling as an HRD tool (Tyler, 2007).
  • Reference:
    • Tyler, J. A. (2007). Incorporating storytelling into practice: How HRD practitioners foster strategic storytelling. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 18(4), 559-587. doi:10.1002/hrdq.1219

Representing Authorship: References

  • Invert author name and use initials followed by periods for first and middle names. This is done for all authors. Use the comma between authors’ surnames. Use the comma and the ampersand (&) before the last author’s surname.
  • Von Krogh, G., Ichijo, K., & Nonaka, I. (2000).
  • If the author’s name includes a hyphen, include it. If the name includes a suffix like Jr., follow the author’s initials with a comma and then add the suffix, as follows:
  • Swanson, R. A., & Holton, E. F., III. (2005).
  • OUWC's APA Tutorial

Representing Authorship: References

  • If a source is authored by up to seven authors, list all authors.
  • Von Krogh, G., Ichijo, K., Nonaka, I., Foster, Q., Weims, B., Holton, E. F.,
  • & Jones, M. (2008).
  • If a source is authored by eight or more authors, list the first six authors followed by a comma, insert three ellipses, and list the last author’s name.
  • Kim, A., Jon, S., Wayne, H., Jake, T., Row, A., Wit, K., . . . Last, M. (2005).
  • If the author is an organization or a corporation, spell out its full name.
  • Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. (2007).
  • OUWC's APA Tutorial
  • OUWC's APA Tutorial
  • SELF-PACED APA TUTORIAL 6
  • References
      • Organization:
      • Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. (2007, January). Developing senior managers. [Fact Sheet]. Retrieved from http://www.cipd.co.uk/subjects/lrnanddev/mmtdevelop/devsnrman.htm
      • No author:
      • Storytelling for profit. (2007, Dec 1). Flint Journal, p. F06. (Note: Precede page number with p. or pp. and list all pages for non-continuous page numbers. You do not do this for journal articles).
      • Up to seven authors (list all):
      • Swanson, R. A., & Holton, E. F., III. (2005). Research in organizations: Foundations and methods of inquiry. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler.
      • Up to seven authors (list all):
      • Von Krogh, G., Ichijo, K., & Nonaka, I. (2000). Enabling knowledge creation: How to unlock the mystery of tacit knowledge and release the power of innovation. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
      • More that seven authors:
      • Von Krogh, G., Ichijo, K., Nonaka, I, Foster, Q., Weims, B., Holton,
      • E. F., III, . . . Last, N. (2008). Publication Title, etc.

Actual Reference Page

  • OUWC's APA Tutorial
  • SELF-PACED APA TUTORIAL 7
  • References
      • Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. (2007, January). Developing senior
      • managers. [Fact Sheet]. Retrieved from http://www.cipd.co.uk/subjects/lrnanddev/mmtdevelop/devsnrman.htm
      • Storytelling for profit. (2007, Dec 1). Flint Journal, p. F06.
      • Swanson, R. A., & Holton, E. F., III. (2005). Research in organizations: Foundations and
      • methods of inquiry. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler.
      • Von Krogh, G., Ichijo, K., & Nonaka, I. (2000). Enabling knowledge creation: How to unlock the mystery of tacit knowledge and release the power of innovation. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
      • Von Krogh, G., Ichijo, K., Nonaka, I, Foster, Q., Weims, B., Holton,
      • E. F., III, . . . Last, N. (2008). Publication Title, etc.

Representing Authorship: In-Text

  • OUWC's APA Tutorial

Representing Authorship: In-Text

  • If the document is penned by two authors, always cite both authors’ names in the order they are listed in the text:
  • First: (Argyris & Schon, 1996) Thereafter: same
  • If the document is authored by three to five authors, cite all authors the first time. In subsequent citations, include the first author’s surname followed by “et al.” and the date as follows:
  • First: (Von Krogh, Ichijo, & Nonaka, 2000)
  • Thereafter: (Von Krogh et al., 2000)
  • OUWC's APA Tutorial

Representing Authorship: In-Text

  • If the document has six or more authors, cite the surname of the first author followed by “et al.” and the date in all places where it appears in the text.
  • (Jones et al., 2010)
  • In the running text, join a multiple author citation with the word “and.” In a parenthetical citation and in the references page, use the ampersand (&).
  • Running Text: Argyris and Schon (1996) argued
  • Parentheses/References: (Argyris & Schon, 1996)
  • If you cite more than one source in a single parenthetical citation, order them alphabetically:
  • (Argyris & Schon, 1996; Jones et al., 2010)
  • OUWC's APA Tutorial

Representing Authorship: In-Text

  • If a source lacks author attribution, cite the first few words of the title, marked with appropriate title punctuation. Within the running text and a parenthetical citation, you capitalize all significant words of titles. Note: This does not apply to the references page.
  • (“Storytelling Anecdotes,” 2007) for an article
  • (Narrative Leadership, 2007) for a book
  • If the author is a corporate entity, cite the full name (not acronym) the first time. If it is readily identifiable and long, you can use the acronym thereafter. APA prefers that you write it out throughout.
  • If and only if the document indicates the author as “Anonymous,” cite authorship parenthetically as follows:
  • (Anonymous, 2009)
  • OUWC's APA Tutorial

Representing Authorship: In-Text

  • Author (date) and (Author, date) repetition:
  • I am frequently asked whether or not students need to repeat the date next to the author’s name within the same paragraph. In the 6th edition, the rule on this matter has changed from the 5th edition. See 6.11 (p.174):
    • Always include the date in parenthetical citations, even within the same paragraph.
    • After the first use within the running text of a paragraph, the date does not need to follow the author if there is no chance that the source can be confused with another.
  • OUWC's APA Tutorial

APA Title Conventions

  • OUWC's APA Tutorial

Entitlement: References

  • Capitalize the first word of a chapter title, article, poem, or television episode and its subtitle as well as any proper nouns. Do not use additional title punctuation.
    • Simmons, A. (2006). The six stories you need to know how to tell. In The
    • story factor (2nd Rev. ed., pp. 1-26). Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books Group.
  • OUWC's APA Tutorial

Entitlement: References

  • Italicize and capitalize the first word of the title and subtitle of all complete works—such as books, albums, television series—that are not periodicals.
    • Gabriel, Y. (2000). Storytelling in organizations: Facts, fictions and
    • fantasies. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  • Italicize and capitalize all significant words of a periodical title. Extend the italics to the volume number, if given, but not the issue number, even if given.
  • McKenna, S. (1999). Storytelling and “real” management competence.
  • Journal of Workplace Learning, 11(3-4), 95-104.
  • OUWC's APA Tutorial

Entitlement: In-Text

  • Within the running text, use quotation marks around titles of parts of larger works, such as book chapters and articles; italicize the titles of complete works, such as books and periodicals. Note: This does NOT apply to the references entry.
        • In The Story Factor, Simmons (2006) introduced (book title)
    • In “Storytelling and ‘Real’ Management Competence,” McKenna
    • (1999) opined. Note: This article title contained quotation marks around the word real, so when enclosed within title punctuation, you need to change it to single quotation marks.
  • OUWC's APA Tutorial

Additional In-Text Features

  • OUWC's APA Tutorial

Page Numbers within Citations

  • Page numbers are always included as part of the citation for directly quoted material.
    • Jones (2015) argued that “students who borrow money for education often . . .” (p. 315).
  • Page numbers may also be used to support closely paraphrased material.
  • OUWC's APA Tutorial

Representing Numbers

  • Generally, you write the word form of numbers under 10 in the running text. Those above 10 are represented as numerals.
  • The first word of a sentence cannot be a numeral, so a number at the beginning of a sentence must be expressed using words.
  • See the APA 6th Edition for an ample list of exceptions (4.31-4.38)
  • OUWC's APA Tutorial

Referencing Common Print Texts

  • OUWC's APA Tutorial

Referencing Books

  • For a book with one or more authors (not an edited collection), include author(s), date, book title, location, and publisher, as follows:
    • Armstrong, D. M. (1992). Managing by storying around: A new method of leadership. New York, NY: Doubleday Currency.
  • For a chapter in an edited collection, begin with the chapter author(s) followed by the date, chapter title, editors, title of book, chapter page range, location, and publisher, represented as follows:
  • Fear, J. R. (2003). Thinking historically about organizational learning. In M.
  • Dierkes, A. B. Antal, J. Child, & I. Nonaka (Eds.), Handbook of organizational
  • learning and knowledge (pp. 162-186). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
  • OUWC's APA Tutorial

Referencing Periodicals

  • A journal article reference should include the author(s), date, article title, journal title, volume(issue), and page range. Note: If the article was retrieved online, cite the URL unless you have a DOI number (see next slide). Do not include a retrieval date unless the site is not stable. In standard practice, most authors do not insert URLs for PDFs. Check with the professor/publication’s editors for guidance on this issue.
  • Vendeloe, M. T. (1998). Narrating corporate reputation: Becoming legitimate through
  • storytelling. International Studies of Management and Organization, 28(3), 120-137.
  • A magazine article with an author:
  • Breuer, N. L. (1998, Dec.). The power of storytelling. Workforce, 77, 36-41.
  • A newspaper article with an author: While journal and magazines do not include a p. or pp. to indicate pagination, newspapers do, as follows:
  • Kitchen, P. (2008, Jan. 27). Change @ work: Telling a good story beats PowerPoint at persuasion. Newsday, p. F06.
  • OUWC's APA Tutorial

Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs)

  • OUWC's APA Tutorial
  • Because digital content is prone to being moved, many publishers have started assigning scholarly web content a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), which the APA website defines as:
    • a unique alphanumeric string assigned by a registration agency to identify content and provide a persistent link to its location on the Internet. When a DOI is available, include the DOI instead of the URL in the reference. Publishers who follow best practices will publish the DOI prominently on the first page of an article. Because the DOI string can be long, it is safest to copy and paste whenever possible. Provide the alphanumeric string for the DOI exactly as published in the article. When your article is published and made available electronically, the DOI will be activated as a link to the content you are referencing (www.apastyle.org/elecmedia.html).

Referencing an Article with a DOI

  • To examine an article with a digital object locator, see http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hrdq.1219
  • The above linked article would be cited in your reference page as follows:
  • Tyler, J. A. (2007). Incorporating storytelling into practice: How HRD practitioners foster strategic storytelling. Human Resource Development Quarterly,18(4), 559-587. doi:10.1002/hrdq.1219
  • OUWC's APA Tutorial

Referencing Electronic Sources Without DOIs

  • The source information might be represented on an article or in a database as follows:
  • Developing a Standardized Letter of Recommendation Alyssa M Walters;  Patrick C Kyllonen;  Janice W Plante 2006 English Article (EJ) 10
  • Journal of College Admission, v191 p8-17 Spr 2006
  • National Association for College Admission Counseling. 1631 Prince Street, Alexandria, VA 22314-2818. Tel: 703-836-2222; Tel: 800-822-6285 (Toll Free); Fax: 703-836-8015; e-mail: info@nacac.com; Web site: http://www.nacacnet.org.
  • Your task is to make the source information conform to APA and to supply access information for the material. Therefore, if the site is not stable, you also should include a retrieval date. The correct APA citation, translated from the above source information, is:
  • Walters, A. M., Kyllonen, P. C., & Plante, J. W. (2006). Developing a standardized letter of recommendation. Journal of College Admission, 191, 8-17. Retrieved from http://www.nacacnet.org
  • OUWC's APA Tutorial
  • OUWC's APA Tutorial
  • Electronic Sources and
  • Other Matters

Electronic Resources

  • The American Psychological Association addresses some electronic formats in the 6th edition manual, but it has compiled an electronic supplement that we highly recommend. See the following for details on how to purchase the APA References Guide to Electronic Resources.
  • OUWC's APA Tutorial

Title Page Construction

  • OUWC's APA Tutorial

Guidelines for the Running head

  • OUWC's APA Tutorial
  • Use Word’s “Header and Footer” option to create a running head, which will be included on every page of the paper. Immediately select the option “different first page” because the running head is represented differently on the title page than on subsequent pages.
  • The running head is a short version of the paper’s title. It should not contain abbreviations or non-essential words. The words should be placed in the header, flush left to the margin, with the page number located flush right to the margin.
  • The running head on the title page is preceded by the words “Running head” followed by a colon. Note that the word “Running” is capitalized, whereas the word “head” is not.

Title Page with Running head

  • Running head: INCORPORATING STORYTELLING 1
  • Directions for Running head (above): Format the running head flush left within the header using directions on the previous slide. Insert the page number at the end , flush right. Notice capitalization.
    • Incorporating Storytelling into Practice
    • Jo A. Tyler
    • Pennsylvania State University-Harrisburg
  • Directions for the Title, Author, and Affiliation (above):
  • Center the full title using significant word capitalization.
  • Place the author(s) name on the next double-spaced line.
  • Include the author’s affiliation on the next double spaced line.
  • Sometimes your professor or editor will request additional information.
  • In addition to the running head, located in the document’s header and formatted as discussed in the previous slide, the title page includes the paper’s full title, author, affiliation, and any other information the professor/editor requires.
  • The title page is double spaced.
  • The title page is the only page of the paper in which the running head is preceded by the words “Running head” followed by a colon.
  • OUWC's APA Tutorial
  • Running head: INCORPORATING STORYTELLING 1
    • Incorporating Storytelling into Practice
    • Jo A. Tyler
    • Pennsylvania State University-Harrisburg
  • OUWC's APA Tutorial
  • Sample Title Page
  • INCORPORATING STORYTELLING 3
  • Incorporating Storytelling into Practice
  • This sample page demonstrates APA headers in use. In very few cases would you find it necessary to include all five levels. While this slide serves as an introduction to my discussion of APA headers, you do not use headers as labels for introductions. Your first level one header is reserved for the
  • OUWC's APA Tutorial
  • First Page of the Actual Text
  • INCORPORATING STORYTELLING 10
    • As demonstrated here, each subsequent page of the essay contains a header with a running head (all caps), but only
    • the title page (demonstrated on the previous slide) includes the designation “Running head:” before the fully capped running head. The writing center offers a paper template into which you can cut and paste this content . . .
  • OUWC's APA Tutorial

Headers

  • The 6th edition has simplified headings, as follows:
  • Centered, Boldface (Upper- and Lowercase Headings)
  • Flush Left, Boldface (Upper- and Lowercase Headings)
  • Indented, boldface. (Lowercase paragraph heading that ends with a period)
  • Indented, boldface, italicized. (Lowercase paragraph heading that ends with a period)
  • Indented, italicized. (Lowercase paragraph heading ending with period)
  • The next slide demonstrates all five in use.
  • OUWC's APA Tutorial

  • THE SIGNIFICANCE OF APA HEADERS 3
  • The Significance of APA Headers
  • This sample page demonstrates APA headers in use. In very few cases would you find it necessary to include all five levels. While this slide serves as an introduction to my discussion of APA headers, you do not use headers as labels for introductions. Your first level one header is reserved for the first body section of the paper.
  • First Level Headers
  • First level headers serve as umbrellas for the text’s primary talking points. Don’t treat the abstract, the article title, or the term References as a level one header.
  • Second Level Headers
  • Second level headers mark sub-points of the main discussion sections. For example, if your literature review covers four theories, each could be a second level header.
  • Third level headers. Third level headers address sub-points of the second level headers. If different theories were separated by level two headers, different proponents of each theory could be marked by level three headers. These headers are followed immediately by text.
  • Fourth level headers. Fourth level headers further break out the discussion within third level headers as positioned here. Perhaps your literature review looks at different periods in each level three theorist’s work. These headers are followed immediately by text.
  • Fifth level headers. Fifth level headers, not often used, break out sub-points within fourth level headers. These headers, like level three and four headers, are followed immediately by text.
  • OUWC's APA Tutorial
  • Thank you for viewing this tutorial. I hope you found it helpful. If you would like to offer feedback or if you found an error, please contact me at wynn@oakland.edu.
  • OUWC's APA Tutorial
  • Good Luck


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