Dear Sophomore Advanced Placement (AP) World History Student,
Welcome to this course! What is exciting about this class is that we learn about the entire world, Latin America, Africa, India, the whole world. We enjoy knowing about other cultures and how cultures have interacted and shaped each other over time. This background helps us understand our place in the world. My hope is that you will find it a valuable learning experience.
It is very useful for us to get in two writing assignments before September. These two assignments shouldn't take you too long. They will, however, save us a few days of class time. Please read the directions carefully.
Complete these essays by August 15th so that we can read them before school starts. Mail your essays to me via snail mail to school, email them, or deliver them to my mail box in the Public Office at North Central. No matter what method you use, be sure your name is on the essays. If you mail them, just fold up your essays and mail them in a regular envelope. There is no need to be concerned about a cover page or anything fancy. Here is my contact information:
1600 N. Howard
Spokane, WA 99203
Part A: How I Stayed the Same and Changed Over Time
The first half of the summer assignment involves writing a Continuity and Change Over Time essay. This is a style of essay we write in World History that examines how something changes and stays the same over time. For example, we could look at how women's roles in the United States have changed from 1776 to present day, or how art in India has changed from 1750 to 1914. This essay forces us to examine the beginning situation, what caused it to change, and its ending condition. We also consider what stayed the same.
This summer I would like you to write your own Continuity and Change Over Time (CCOT) essay about yourself. You can pick the area to specialize in: education, friends, responsibility, church life, family, athletics, music, or any topic of your choice. You start the essay wherever it’s appropriate.
How I Have Changed Over Time Brainstorming Worksheet
Directions: You certainly do NOT have to answer all of these questions! This brainstorming sheet is meant to help to think about your topic. Use what is helpful!
I. "The beginning" description (Pick something you've been associated with for longer than a year or two. The further back in time you can start, the easier this is.) Questions to consider:
Why were you attracted to this hobby/interest? How did you first come in contact with this subject?
How did you feel about this topic? What were your initial thoughts?
Did others influence this attitude toward this subject? How was this attitude reflected in your behavior?
Describe where you are in this hobby/interest/situation? What are your thoughts and feelings about this subject today?
Do you see this as a better "place" than when you started? What would others around you say about where you are?
Do you sense that this will be a somewhat permanent condition, or will you be changing this soon?
IV. What has stayed the same? Questions to consider:
What has always been true about this subject/hobby/interest?
What was there at the beginning and has changed very little since? How is this consistency important to you?
This could be a person, an attitude, an event, anything associated with your subject.
For Part B of your summer assignment we are trying to figure out the impact that the need for water had on early society. There are two steps to prepare you for writing this essay. You will be writing an essay answering the question:
How did the need for a steady supply of water affect the technological, economic, political, and legal development of ancient society?
Step 1. Read this background information to prepare you for this topic:
Though the earliest of the world’s civilizations all grew up in river valleys, the technical and organizational problems they confronted were very different because the character of the rivers differed tremendously. The Tigris and Euphrates flowed very fast, carrying soil as well as water down from the highlands. This soil was extremely rich and created new farmland where the rivers emptied into the Persian Gulf. (The ancient Persian Gulf ended more than 100 miles north of its modern day shoreline; all of that land was created as the rivers filled in the delta.) The soil also filled in the irrigation ditches, which meant that they had to be cleaned out constantly. Every year this deposit was piled on the banks until they grew so high that the cleaning could no longer be accomplished easily. At this point a new ditch was cut and the old one abandoned a process that entailed a great deal of work and required the cooperation of everyone whose land was watered by that particular ditch.
Mesopotamian farmers used several types of irrigation. They leveled large plots of land adjacent to the rivers and main canals, building up dikes around them in what is termed basin irrigation. During the spring and other high-water times of the year, farmers knocked holes in the dikes to allow water and fresh soil in. Once the sediment had settled, they let the water flow back into the channel. Workers also built small waterways between their fields to provide water throughout the year, developing a system of perennial irrigation. In the hillier country of northern Mesopotamia, farmers built terraces with water channels running alongside them. The terraces provided narrow strips of flat land to farm, and the waterways connected to brooks and streams.
Many of the irrigation techniques developed in Mesopotamia spread to Egypt or were developed independently there. Egypt, because it received even less rainfall than Mesopotamia, was totally dependent on the Nile for watering crops. Fortunately, the Nile was much easier to use than the Tigris and Euphrates because it flooded regularly, allowing easy basin irrigation. The Nile was so predictable, in fact, that the Egyptians based their 365-day calendar on its annual flooding. The Egyptians also constructed waterways and water-lifting machines for perennial irrigation. Here as well, irrigation both caused and resulted from the growth of cities.
In China the Yellow River is very violent and carries a great amount of silt – twelve times as much as the Nile. The silt, caused by deforestation and erosion in the highlands, raises the bed of the Yellow River by three feet every century, necessitating either constant dredging of irrigation canals or the continual building of higher dikes to hold back the river. The violence of the Yellow River floods – which have continued into the twentieth century – has changed the river’s lower course dramatically throughout recorded history and has always led to devastation and social upheaval. Engineers in the Yellow River valley thus needed waterworks that would both protect cities and villages from flooding and at the same time irrigate fields; the earliest attempts to do both began in the seventh century BCE. In addition, the states that developed in the Yellow River valley received most of their taxes in the form of grain, which needed to be transported to the capital or to armies under state command. Along much of its course, the Yellow was too turbulent for transport, so canals were dug for grain barges. These three goals – flood control, irrigation, and grain transport- were not always compatible. In addition, competing armies often used waterworks as weapons, flooding the land of their rivals by building or destroying dikes.
Some of the earliest large scale water works in China were the Hong Guo system of canals connecting the Yellow River with the Bian and Si Rivers, dating from the fifth or fourth century BCE, and the Hengguo irrigation canal, first completed in 246 BCE and still in use today. Branch canals dug from the major arteries created large irrigated areas, and farmers built water-lifting machines for the perennial irrigation of their plots. As in Mesopotamia, water rights were a contentious issue, and special officials charged with the regulation of water were appointed as early as the second century BCE
Though sewers were rare in the ancient world, pipes and conduits bringing water into cities and buildings were quite common in some areas. In China, earthenware pipes fitted together in sections have been excavated from as early as the second century BCE, and bamboo piping appears in illustrations from slightly later. The most extensive system for bringing water into cities in the ancient world was the one built for Rome. Like the three civilizations we have already discussed, Rome also grew up on the banks of a river, the Tiber, but substantial natural rainfall in the area made extensive irrigation for agricultural purposes unnecessary. Farmers did build drainage ditches, for much of the land around Rome was marshy and was usable for agriculture only when drained. Rome’s primary water problem was the lack of good drinking water; the Tiber was often brackish and unpleasant, or even unhealthy, to drink. The Chinese solved the problem of unhealthy drinking water very early by boiling theirs, but the Romans instead learned from the Near Eastern neighbors and built aqueducts, covered or uncovered channels that brought water into the cities from pristine lakes and springs. The first of Rome’s aqueducts was built in 312 BCE and the system was expanded continuously up to about 150 CE. Over 300 miles of aqueducts served the city of Rome alone, with extensive networks in the outlying provinces as well. Roman engineers went to great lengths to avoid valleys but were occasionally forced to construct enormous bridges to carry the aqueduct across a gorge. Some of these bridges were over 150 feet high, and a few, such as that in Segovia, Spain, still serve to bring water to city residents. Roman construction techniques, such as the use of the arch and water-resistant cement, allowed them to build water systems undreamed of in Mesopotamia and Egypt.
Step 2. For each of the following documents, answer the questions below the document. While you read, consider how each document might show an impact on technology, politics, law, and economy Source A
Source A is a map of the major ancient irrigation ditches between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers identifiable using a military satellite. What does the extent of the system reveal about Mesopotamian technology? Does the system seem simple and require little cooperation, or does it look complex and requires serious cooperation? What does the size of this network imply about the political systems in this area? What does this show us about technology during ancient times?
Source B Source B is the earliest depiction of irrigation ditches from ancient Egypt, carved on the head of a ceremonial mace (a staff carried by an official) dating from around 3100 BCE. The large figure in the center is an early Egyptian king. What does the king appear to be doing? Would a king actually be expected to dig ditches? What does this picture tell us about the importance of irrigation ditches? What does it tell us about the role of the political figure (king)?
Source C. Sections from the Code of Hammurabi Referring to Irrigation, 1750 BCE 53. If a man neglects to maintain his dike and does not strengthen it, and a break is make in his dike and the water carries away the farmland, the man in whose dike the break has been made shall replace the grain which has been damaged.
54. If he is not able to replace the grain, they shall sell him and his goods and the farmers whose grain the water has carried away shall divide (the results of the sale).
55. If a man opens his canal for irrigation, and neglects it and the water carries away an adjacent field, he shall pay out grain on the basis of the adjacent field.
56. If a man opens up the water and the water carries away the improvements of an adjacent field, he shall pay out ten gur of grain per bur [of damaged land] . . . .
66. If a man has stolen a watering-machine from the meadow, he shall pa five shekels of silver to the owner of the watering-machine.
This writing is taken from the Code of Hammurabi dating from 1750 BCE. Hammurabi was a leader in Babylonia between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. What does Hammurabi say about the irrigation systems? Based on this code, what do we know about the use of laws to control the use of irrigation? Does this code seem more concerned with controlling land or controlling water?
Source D. Sima Qian’s Description of the Building of the Zhengguo Canal, ca. 100BCE
(The prince of) Han,1 hearing that the State of Chhin2 [Qin] was eager to adventure profitable enterprises, desired to exhaust it (with heavy activities), so that it should not start expanding to the east (and making attacks on Han). He therefore sent the hydraulic engineer Cheng Kuo [Zhengguo] (to Chhin) to persuade deceitfully (the king of). Chhin to open a canal from the Ching (Qing) River, from Chung-shan [Zhongshan] and Hu-khou [Hukou] in the west, all along the foot of the northern mountains, carrying water to fall into the river Lo in the east. The proposed canal was to be more than 300 li2 long, and was to be used for irrigating agricultural land.
Before the construction work was more than half finished, however, the Chhin authorities became aware of the trick. (The king of Chhin) wanted to kill Chaeng Kuo, but he [the engineer] addressed him as follows: ‘it is true that at the beginning I deceived you, but nevertheless this canal, when it is completed, will be of great benefit to Chhin. I have, by this ruse, prolonged the life of the State of Han for a few years, but I am accomplishing a work which will sustain the State of Chhin for ten thousand generations.” The (king of) Chhin agreed with him, approved his words, and gave firm orders that the canal was to be completed. When it was finished, rich silt-bearing water was led through it to irrigate more than [667,000 acres] of alkali land. The harvests from these fields attained the level of 916 bushels) per mou [i.e. they became very abundant]. Thus Kuanchung (the land within the passes) became a fertile country without bad years. (It was for this reason that) Chhin became so rich and powerful, and in the end was able to conquer all the other feudal States. And ever after wards the canal (bore the name of the engineer and) was called the Chengkuo Canal.
1. Han and Chhin were two states that bordered the yellow River.
2. 300 li = 100 miles.
Source H is written by Sima Qian, a Chinese historian. He is writing about the building of the hengguo canal in the third century BCE. He writes about the competing Han and Chhin (Qin) states. According to this passage what did the leaders of the Chhin learn about the value of irrigation? What were the purposes of the canal? Is there information about the technology of China in this source?
Source E from Naphtali Lewis and Meyer Reinhold, Roman Civilization
(New York: Columbia University Press, 1995), pp 151-152.
The public works which Claudius completed were great and essential rather that numerous; they were in particular the following: an aqueduct begun by Caligula; also the drainage channel of Lake Fucine and the harbor at Ostia, although in the case of the last two he know that Augustus had refused the former to the Marsians in spite of their frequent requests, and that the latter had often been considered by the deified Julius but given up because of its difficulty. He brought to the city on stone arches the cool and abundant springs of the Claudian aqueduct . . . and at the same time the channel of the New Anio, distributing them into many beautifully ornamented fountains. He made the attempt on the Fucine Lake as much in the hope of gain as of glory, inasmuch as there were some who offered to drain it at their own cost provided the land that was drained be given them. He finished the drainage canal, which was three miles in length, partly by leveling and partly by tunneling a mountain, a work of great difficulty requiring eleven years, although he had 30,000 men at work all the time without interruption. Nearer the city, from the seventh Roman mile-stone, is half a mile on substructures and five miles on arches. These arches are very high, rising in certain places to a height of 109 feet.
. . . All the aqueducts reach the city at different levels. So some serve the higher districts and some cannot reach loftier ground. For the hills of Rome have gradually increased in height because of the rubble from frequent fires. There are five aqueducts high enough at entrance to reach all the city, but they supply water at different pressures. . . .
Anyone who wants to tap water fro private consumption must send in an application and take it, duly signed by the Emperor, to the Commissioner. The latter must take immediate action on Caesar’s grant, and enroll one of the Imperial freedmen to help him in the business. . . . The right to water once granted cannot be inherited or bought, and does not go with the property, though long ago a privilege was extended to the public baths that their right should last in perpetuity . . . . When grants lapse, notice is given and record made in the ledgers, which are consulted so that future applicants can be given vacant supplies. The previous custom was to cut off these lapsed supplies at once, to make some profit by a temporary sale to the landowners or even to outsiders. Our Emperor felt that property should not suddenly be left without water, and that it would be fairer to give thirty days’ notice for other arrangements to be made by the interested party. . . .
Now that I have explained the situation with regard to private supply, it will be pertinent to give some examples of the ways in which men have broken these very sound arrangements and have been caught red-handed. In some reservoirs I have found larger valves in position than had been granted, and some have not even had the official stamp on them. . . .
Another of the waterman’s intolerable practices to make a new outlet from the cistern when a water-grant is transferred to a new owner, leaving the old one for themselves. I would say that it was one of the Commissioner’s chief duties to put a stop to this. For it affects not only the proper protection of the supply, but also the upkeep of the reservoir which would be ruined if needlessly filled with outlets.
Another financial scheme of the watermen, which they call “puncturing,” must also be abolished. There are long separate stretches all over the city through which the pipes pass hidden under the pavement. I found out that these pipes were being tapped everywhere by the “punctures,” from which water was supplied by private pipe to all the business premises in the area, with the result that only a meager amount reached the public utilities. I can estimate the volume of water stolen in this way from the amount of lead piping which was removed when these branches pipes were dug up.
In Source I the Roman historian Suetonius records the water-system projects undertaken by the Emperor Claudius during his reign (41-54 CE). What reasons are given for Claudius’s water-system projects? In what ways did Claudis’s water-system projects help the economy? What do you learn about the technology of Roman water systems? What was the role of the government and what laws were created to monitor the need for water?
[Shao] Hsin-ch’en [Xinchen] was promoted to be grand administrator of Nanyang. . . .Hsin-ch’en was a person of energy and plans; he took an interest in creating benefits for the people and regarded it as his urgent task to enrich them. Crossing in and out of the fields, stopping and resting even at remote village and cantons, and having very little time for quiet living, he personally encouraged farming.
As he traveled about, he inspected the waters and springs in the commandery. He dug canals and ditches and built water gates and dikes in several tens of places in all to expand the irrigated land, which increased year by year to as much as [500,000 acres]. The people obtained benefits from this and had a surplus of stores.
Hsin-chin’en formulated regulations for the people concerning the equitable distribution of water. They were inscribed on stones and set up at the boundaries of the fields to prevent disputes over the distribution [of water].
Source J is a report of the activities of Shao Xinchen, an administrator during the Han dynasty in China dating sometime before 33 BCE. What does this report say about the economic impacts of the irrigation systems? What role does the government play in making these water systems?
Source G Frontinus’s Discussion of Rome’s Water System ca. 100 CE
The New Anio3 is drawn from the river in the district of Sinbrinum, at about the forty-second milestone along the Via Sublacensis. On either side of the river at this point are fields of rich soil which make the banks less firm, so that the water in the aqueduct is discoloured and muddy even without the damage done by storms. So a little way along from the inlet a cleansing basin was built where the water could settle and be purified between the river and the conduit. Even so, in the event of rain, the water reaches the city in a muddy state. The length of the New Anio is about 47 miles, of which over 39 are underground and more than 7 carried on structures above the ground. In the upper reaches a distance of about two miles in various sections is carried on low structures or arches.
3. An aqueduct completed under the emperor Claudius in 52 CE
Source K is written in 100 CE by Frontius who was the commissioner of the water supply. He discusses some of the problems associated with Rome’s water system. What does he say are problems with the system? What are the ways that the government has tried to control these problems?
[Jia Rang memorialized:] “. . . Digging canals has three benefits; not digging them has three detriments. When the people are constantly exhausted by preventing floods, half of them lose their livelihood. When the water overflows the land and when the accumulated moisture evaporates, the people are made ill by the humid atmosphere. All the trees rapidly rot away, and the soil, turning alkaline, does not produce grain. When the river breaks the dikes and overflows, destruction ensures, and [the victims] become food for fish and turtles. These are the three detriments.
“If there are canals for irrigation, then the salt is washed down to the marshy ground and the spreading of the silt increases fertility. Where formerly millet an wheat were raised, even nonglutinous and glutinous rice can be produced; the productivity is increased fivefold in the high lying land and tenfold in low-lying land. Furthermore, there is the advantage of transportation by water. These are the three benefits.”
[Jia Rang next considers the possible types of irrigation projects, and proposes the building of large-scale dikes as the best policy. He describes two other alternatives to pursue if new dikes are not possible types of irrigation projects: digging new irrigation canals and repairing the old dikes. He assesses these two choices as follows.]
“At present, the number of functionaries and conscript laborers for embankments along the Yellow River in each commandery is server thousand, and the costs of cutting and buying wood and stone are several tens of millions yearly [an amount] that is sufficient to dig canals and construct water gates. Furthermore, when the people benefit from irrigation, they will urge one another to make canals, and they will not be weary even if the work is strenuous. At the same time the people’s fields will be cared fro and the dikes on the Yellow River will be completed. This will indeed enrich the state, make the people secure, create profit, and do away with calamities, and it will endure for several hundred years. Therefore, I consider this a medium policy. Repairing the old dikes by means of increasing the height and thickness would cost limitlessly, and we would frequently encounter calamities. Tis would be the worst policy.”
Source L is a memorial from the 1st century BCE by Jia Rang (Chia Jang), a specialist in flood control, answering an imperial decree that asked for opinions on river conservancy. What are the economic impacts of irrigation (employment, agricultural production, etc.)? What is the impact of irrigation on the government?
Now that you have read and dissected the 12 pieces of evidence, you need to write an essay answering the question: How did the need for a steady supply of water affect the technological, economic, political, and legal development of ancient society? First, write a thesis that answers the question then, you'll need a body paragraph for each topic: technological, economic, political, and legal. In each of these paragraphs you want to refer to and incorporate support and examples from the evidence, and after you have discussed each document you can write a simple citation. For example, after discussing source A you should write (Source A) at the end of the last sentence and then place a period at the end. You do not need to include any research beyond these documents. There is no need for a conclusion paragraph. You must show the reader you have read and understood all of the information about this topic, including each of the 12 pieces of evidence. Preferably your essay is typed. If you do not have access to a computer, then hand-written is fine.
Below is the start of a paragraph on the economy. You may use this paragraph, but you’d need to add more about workers, how farmers benefitted, and how trade was improved.
As a result of the need for water, workers in ancient societies were engaged in building water systems, farmers benefitted and trade was improved. According to Suetonius, in the ancient Roman society 30,000 men worked for eleven years to build a drainage canal. It isn’t quite clear if this work was what the 30,000 laborers wanted to do, or if they were forced to do this work for the Roman emperor (Doc I).