Anatomy exam 1 review – muscles, joints, ligaments back muscles (11)



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ANATOMY EXAM 1 REVIEW – MUSCLES, JOINTS, LIGAMENTS
BACK MUSCLES (11)

Grouping

Muscle

Action

Innervation

Vasculature

Superficial (5)



Trapezius

rotate scapula;

elevate, retract shoulder



Accessory n. (CN XI)

Transverse cervical a.

Latissimus dorsi

extend, ADduct, medially rotate humerus

Thoracodorsal n.

Thoracodorsal a.

Rhomboideus major

retract and rotate scapula,

fix scapula to thoracic wall


Dorsal scapular n.


Dorsal scapular a.



Rhomboideus minor

“”

Levator scapulae

elevate, rotate scapula

Intermediate (2)



Serratus posterior superior

elevate ribs on inspiration

2 – 5 Intercostal n.

Intercostal a.

Serratus posterior inferior

ribs down, out on inspiration

VPR T9 – T12

Deep (4)


Splenius capitis

laterally bend neck to ipsilateral side; extend head, neck in conjunction

Dorsal rami of spinal n.






Splenius cervicis

“”

Semispinalis

extend neck; rotate head

Dorsal rami of cervical spinal n.




Erector spinae:

Iliocostalis

Lonigissimus

Spinalis


extend vertebral column,

bend laterally



Dorsal rami of respective spinal n.

Lateral sacral a.


SHOULDER & PECTORAL REGION (11)

Grouping

Muscle

Action

Innervation

Vasculature

Shoulder (7)

Deltoid

flex, extend, ABduct humerus

Axillary n.

Thoracoacromial a. (deltoid branch)

Supraspinatus

ABduct humerus

Suprascapular n.

Anastomoses from subclavian or axillar a. that include:

Suprascapular a.

Dorsal scapular a.

Circumflex scapular a.



Infraspinatus

laterally rotate humerus

Suprascapular n.

Teres minor

“”

Axillary n.

Teres major

ADDuct, extend, medially rotate humerus

Lower subscapular n.

Subscapularis

medially rotate humerus

Upper & lower subscapular n.

Omohyoid

depress hyoid bone

Cervical n. C1-C3 via ansa cervicalis




Pectoral region (4)



Pectoralis major

ADduct, medially rotate, extend, flex humerus

Lateral & medial pectoral n.

Thoracoacromial a. (pectoral branches)

Pectoralis minor

protract, depress scapula

Medial pectoral n.

Serratus anterior

protract, rotate scapula

Long thoracic n.

Lateral thoracic a.

Subclavius

depress scapula

Subclavian n.

Thoracoacromial a. (clavicular branch)


ARM (5)

Grouping

Muscle

Action

Innervation

Vasculature

Anterior (3)



Coracobrachialis

flex, ADduct arm

Musculocutaneous n.


Brachial a. & its branches



Biceps brachii

(long, short)



flex arm, forearm; supinate forearm

Brachialis

flex forearm

Posterior (2)



Triceps brachii

(long, lateral, medial)



extend arm, forearm

Radial n.


Profunda brachii a.



Anconeus

extend forearm


FOREARM (20)

Grouping

Muscle

Action

Innervation

Vasculature

Anterior (superficial – 5)



Pronator teres

pronate, flex forearm

Median n.

Ulnar a. & radial a.

Flexor carpi radialis

flex hand, ABduct wrist

Ulnar a.


Flexor carpi ulnaris

flex, ADduct wrist

Ulnar n.

Flexor digitorum superficialis

flex PIP; flex MP

Median n.



Palmaris longus

flex wrist;

tighten palmar aponeurosis


Anterior (deep – 3)



Flexor digitorum profundus

flex DIP of digits

Medial: ulnar n.

Lateral: median n.


Anterior interosseus a.



Pronator quadratus

pronate forearm

Anterior interosseus n. of median n.

Flexor pollicis longus

flex IP of thumb

Posterior (12)



Brachioradialis

flex forearm

Radial n.



Radial recurrent a.

Extensor carpi radialis longus

extend, ABduct wrist;

fist clenching



Radial a.

Extensor carpi radialis brevis

“”

Deep branch of radial n.

Radial a.

Supinator

supinate forearm, rotate radius

Radial recurrent a.

Extensor carpi ulnaris

extend, ADduct wrist

Posterior interosseus n. of radial n.



Ulnar a.

Extensor digitorum

extend MP of digits; extend IP

Posterior interosseus a. from common interosseous a. branch from ulnar a.



Abductor pollicis longus

extend IP, ABduct, extend thumb

Extensor pollicis longus

extend IP thumb, ABduct, extend thumb

Extensor pollicis brevis

extend MP and MCP of thumb, ABduct, extend thumb

Extensor indices

extend 2nd digit

Extensor digiti minimi

extend MP 5th digit; extend IP

­­HAND (19)



Grouping

Muscle

Action

Innervation

Vasculature

Thenar (3)

Abductor pollicis brevis

ABduct/oppose thumb

Recurrent branch of median n.



Superficial palmar branch of the radial a.

Flexor pollicis brevis

flex thumb

Opponens pollicis

oppose, medially rotate thumb

Hypothenar (3)

Abductor digiti minimi

ABduct 5th digit

Deep branch of ulnar n.


Ulnar a.


Flexor digit minimi brevis

flex MPC of 5th digit

Opponens digiti minimi

oppose 5th digit to thumb

Short (Palmar – 9)



Lumbrical 1 + 2

flex MPC joint;

extend IP joint



Median n.

Superficial palmar arch

Deep palmar arch

Common palmar digital a

Dorsal digital a.



Lumbrical 3 + 4

“”

Deep branch of ulnar n.

Superficial palmar arch

Deep palmar arch

Common palmar digital a

Dorsal digital a.



Palmar interossei (1-3)

ADduct digits;

flex MCP joint;

extend IP joint


Dorsal metacarpal a. & palmar metacarpal a.

Palmaris brevis

improves grip

Superficial branch of ulnar n.

Palmar branches of the ulnar a.

Adductor pollicis

ADduct thumb

Deep branch of ulnar n.

Deep palmar arterial arch

Short (Dorsal – 4)

Dorsal interossei (1-4)

ABduct digits;

flex MCP joint;

extend IP joint


Deep branch of ulnar n.

Dorsal metacarpal a. & palmar metacarpal a.


GLUTEAL REGION (8)

Grouping

Muscle

Action

Innervation

Vasculature

Gluteal Region (8)

Gluteus maximus

extend, laterally rotate thigh

Inferior gluteal n.

Superior a. & inferior gluteal a.

Gluteus medius

ABduct, medially rotate thigh

Superior gluteal n.

Superior gluteal a.

Gluteus minimus

“”

Piriformis

laterally rotate thigh

Ventral rami of S1 and S2

Inferior gluteal a.

Internal pudendal a.

Superior gluteal a.


Obturator internus

“”

Nerve to obturator internus

Superior gemellus

“”

Inferior gluteal a.



Inferior gemellus

“”

Nerve to quadratus femoris

Quadratus femoris

“”


THIGH (16)

Grouping

Muscle

Action

Innervation

Vasculature

Anterior (7)



Iliopsoas

flex thigh; flex and laterally bend lumbar spine

Femoral n. (for iliacus) & lumbar plexus (psoas)

Lumbar branch of iliopsoas branch of internal iliac a.

Pectineus

flex, ADduct, laterally rotate thigh at hip

Femoral n. & obturator n.

Medial circumflex femoral branch of femoral a. & obturator a.

Sartorius

flex, ABduct, laterally rotate hip; flex, medially rotate knee

Femoral n.

Femoral a. branches

Rectus femoris

(quadriceps)



flex hip; extend knee

Medial circumflex femoral a.

Vastus lateralis

(quadriceps)



extend leg at knee

Lateral circumflex femoral a.

Vastus medialis

(quadriceps)



“”

Femoral a.

Profunda femoris a.

Superior medial genicular branch of popliteal a.

Vastus intermedius

(quadriceps)



“”

Lateral circumflex femoral a.

Medial (5)



Gracilis

flex, ADduct, thigh at hip;

flex, medially rotate knee


Obturator n.



Obturator a.



Obturator externus

laterally rotate, ADuct hip; holds head of femur in acetabulum

Adductor longus

flex, ADduct thigh at hip

Adductor brevis

flex, extend, ADduct, laterally rotate thigh at hip

Adductor magnus

ADduct thigh; adductor – flex thigh; hamstring – extend thigh

Obturator n. & tibial n.

Posterior (3)



Semimenbranosus

(hamstrings)



extend thigh;

flex, medially rotate leg


Tibial n.



Perforating branches of: Profunda femoris a.

Inferior gluteal a.

Superior branches of popliteal a.



Semitendinosus

(hamstrings)



“”

Biceps femoris

(long head)

(hamstrings)


extend thigh;

flex, laterally rotate leg



Biceps femoris

(short head)



flex, laterally rotate leg

Common fibular n.

N/a

Tensor fasciae latae

ABduct, medially rotate, flex thigh

Superior gluteal n.

Superior gluteal a.

Lateral circumflex femoral a.



LEG (13)

Grouping

Muscle

Action

Innervation

Vasculature

Anterior (4)



Tibialis anterior

dorsiflex ankle; invert foot

Deep fibular n.



Anterior tibial a.



Extensor hallucis longus

dorsiflex ankle; extend 1st digit

Extensor digitorum longus

dorsiflex ankle; extend 2 – 5 digit

Fibularis tertius

dorsiflex ankle;

evert foot



Lateral (2)

Fibularis longus

evert foot; weak plantarflexion of ankle

Superficial fibular n.

Branches of fibular a.

Fibularis brevis

“”

Posterior (superficial – 3)



Soleus

plantarflex ankle; raise heal to walk

Tibial n.


Posterior tibial a.



Gastrocnemius

flex leg;

plantarflex foot



Plantaris

“”

Posterior (deep – 4)



Tibialis posterior

plantarflex ankle; invert foot

Flexor digitorum longus

flex digits 2 – 5, plantarflex ankle, supports long arch

Flexor hallucis longus

flex 1st digit; plantarflex ankle; support med long arch of foot

Popliteus

weakly flex knee; rotate femur on fixed tibia and unlocks leg; medially rotate tibia of unplanted limb




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