- Begins with Bill Clinton & Alan Greenspan. Introduction discusses different political ideologies and opinions regarding the federal deficit of the 1990's. - Clinton wanted middle-class tax cuts + programs meant to create jobs. - Greenspan argued lower bond rates and deficit reduction. - Despite arguments between the two, both aimed to halt the growing national deficit.
The Buck Starts Here: Chapter Introduction
- 1980 census reveals population in the Sunbelt (South and West States) rose after WWII due to amount of bases/defense plants built. - Florida, California, and Texas populations increase at a rate of 2 million residents each year. - Northeast and Middle West eventually begin lose residents to South/West states. - Urbanization in the Sunbelt causes: * better educated residents than those living in rural areas. * Family income increases, as well as city sizes, factories. * Crime rate, living cost, and daily traffic rises as well. - Cities contain 80% of U.S population by 2000. Most population consisted of elderly (over 65 with 13% in 1997) – - AARP (American Association of Retired People) encouraged elderly to vote. 2/3 of those over 65 voted regularly.
The Changing American Population: A People on the Move
The Revival of Immigration
- In 2000 record number of number of immigrants was 2 million, but began to fall back after 2001 terrorist attacks. - Immigrants mainly came from Latin America/Asia. - Many argued influx of immigrants would create problems. Immigrants often took low wage jobs, creating competition low-skilled U.S laborers and African Americans. -1996 legislation began to drop restriction on immigrants, and positive attitudes were beginning to be directed towards the influx of immigrants. (Mainly due to their contribution to economy via taxes)
The Surging Hispanics
- Hispanics became largest ethnic group in 2002, with population rising to almost 60% in one year. - Census Bureau reports the major Hispanic categories as: Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, Cuban Americans, and other Hispanics from Central America. - Many were employed in low-paying positions and lagged behind the growing American population. - Many soon argued undocumented aliens took jobs away from citizens, however, it was argued just as strongly Hispanics played a part in the U.S economy through taxes. - After 2001 border enforcements efforts were put into place. Illegal immigrants still continued to move from Mexico and Central America to the U.S.
Advance and Retreat for African Americans
- African Americans formed second largest ethnic group in 2002 with 38 million blacks in the U.S. - Many resided in northern states, but soon moved to southern states in the 1980’s. - Compared to white Americans, they often earned less. - Rodney King became symbol of black frustration when he was beaten by four white policemen. Rioting broke out in 1965 and many African Americans felt life had gotten worse. - Poverty rates for blacks were nearly double that of their white counterparts 1998.
- 2000 Census Bureau reveals more than 12 million Americans were of Asian or Pacific Island descent. Chinese formed the largest portion of Asian immigrants, followed by Filipinos, Japanese, Indians, Koreans, and Vietnamese. - Asian Americans were usually well educated and ¾ of Asian youths were likely to graduate from high school and move on to college. - However, Asian families who hadn’t fared so well faced racism and became victims of hate crimes. - Americans from the Middle East had a population of 1.5 million in 2000.
Americans from Asia and the Middle East
“Cultural diversity probably accelerated more in the 1980’s than any other decade” (Carl Haube).
- Immigrants from around of the world would later affect American culture. - U.S became known as a “melting pot”. - Sociologist Amitai Etzioni suggested referring to the U.S as a “mosaic”. - Awareness of ethnic diversity was first seen in education with multicultural course, and later in census tests.
Melting Pot or Multiethnic Diversity?
Key Points for Pgs. 961-969
- After population of Sunbelt states rose dramatically, rapid urbanization caused an influx of immigrants looking for better life in the U.S. The influx of immigrants has sparked debates to this day. - Hispanics, African Americans, Asians, and Americans from the Middle East began to make up a large portion of the U.S population in the 1990’s.
- As population of immigrants rise, ethnic diversity is recognized with the U.S described as a “melting pot” or “mosaic” of cultural diversity.
Democratic Revival Cont.
Democrats regained power of the white House in 1992 despite republican sweep in 1994.
The Election of 1992
Slow and uneven recession (high unemployment rate).
3,000,000 unemployed became Major issue for Bush administration.
Clinton focused on economic renewal. (Rebuilding roads, training workers, and solving national healthcare crisis).
Empathy, charm, and understanding, combined with desire to serve made him a great political leader.
Wife Hillary Clinton: Very loyal and helpful to Bill. (right hand woman)
“I did not have sexual relations with that woman”.
Economic Recovery Cont.
Ethnic and gender diversity in appointing his cabinet.
An economic program that called for tax increases and spending cuts to achieve a balanced budgets.
$241 billion in new taxes and $255 billion in spending cuts, for a total reduction of $496 billion over 4 years.
Republicans criticized it by saying it was “the biggest tax increase in the history of the world”.
President versus Congress
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).
Hillary Clinton presented the health care reform plan.
The system included to aid millions of Americans who lacked insurance and lower costs. (failed because it would have been to chaotic).
Contract with America
Contract with America.
Republicans criticized Clintons character.
Republicans took over both house of congress in 1994.
Comeback kid once again?
The Clinton Rebound
Since Clintons presidency: greater efficiency, greater productivity, and 9 million new jobs had been created.
Welfare program- required recipients to find work within two years or lose benefits.
Comeback kid! Won by stressing on education and health care.
Economic growth surpassed his expectations.
Clinton and the World
There were significant changes in foreign policy in 1990’s under Clinton administration.
The new president focused on domestic and economic issues.
Worked hard to stimulate the economy and delegate a foreign policy that could accommodate domestic agenda and sought new secretaries.
Global Tensions in the Post-Cold War Era
Dealing with Russia and China, former enemies in the Cold War.
U.S. provided aid/stopped nuclear proliferation programs in former Soviet lands.
Tried negotiating with China for economic interests, despite its “dismal human rights record.”
Didn’t know how to approach foreign policy after Cold War.
Sent troops to Somalia; didn’t go well. Low point of Clinton’s foreign policy
Tried to help Haiti become democracy, but failed in the long-run.
Halting Civil War in Bosnia
Helped end war in the diverse area Bosnia, which had high numbers of Muslims, Croatians, and Serbians. The Serbs began a policy of “ethnic cleansing”. Opposed with no national interest, to save human life.
Helped temporarily divide Bosnia until the fighting ended.
Kosovars were suffered from ethnic cleansing in Yugoslavia. U.S. intervened and had another foreign policy victory after getting NATO involved.
1900s boom collapsed in 2001 with the stock market crash, leading to a brief recession
There was a terrorist attack September 11 2001 on the Twin Towers and the Pentagon and the U.S. invaded to protect the nation
THE DISPUTED ELECTION OF 2000
The presidential candidates were Governor of Texas George W. Bush and Tennessee’s Vice President Al Gore
Both were very different and has different approaches for leading the nation. For example, Bush wanted a limited government, a tax cut, partial privatization for SS and other reforms. Gore wanted government action, expand in federal role for education and healthcare and no tax cuts.
Gore had seemed like the winner with more popular votes and electoral votes than Bush but after fixing the recount problems in Florida, and the Electoral College results, Bush won the election
BUSH’S DOMESTIC AGENDA
Bush had the a challenge of being inexperienced and starting off with Democrats who had power in the legislature.
He organized his cabinet with mainly conservative Republicans
Set for tax- cuts to stimulate the economy, and increased federal aid for education with the “No Child Left Behind” Act
Although the tax cut and education reformed seemed successful, but then a republican left the party and the Democrats ruled the upper chamber, a recession occurred leading to a rise of 6% of unemployment, the war with Iraq was declared after the terrorist attack, and major companies collapsed.
Bush said the tax cuts would benefit and after 3 years of loss, the stock market begain to rise slowly.
TERRORISM: ATTACK AND COUNTERATTACK
On September 11 2001 terrorist attacked in the world trade center and the pentagon, leading to the U.S. enforcing military trying to set peace end terrorism, “ war on terrorism”
U.S. invaded Afghanistan to destroy the Taliban, wipe out al-Qaeda and capture Osama bin Laden and his terrorist in training.
Homeland security department was in charge of possible threats with on the nations border with immigrants coming in, safety on airplanes , etc. People were scared making made bush take action, proving his leadership skills and clearing some doubts about his potential.
THE NEW AMERICAN EMPIRE
Bush decision after Sep 11 led to a new global policy for the U.S:
National Security Strategy (NSS) of the United States who’s purpose was to “extend the peace by the encouraging free and open societies on every continent”
Bush’s new administration was different than the traditional forms but he came more focused on “the war on terrorism”
Bush believed that Iraq had weapons of mass destruction and sent inspectors to search the country and war was declared in Iraq late 2002 early 2003
Nothing was found, and made the country deal with debt and critics questioning why the war was done in the first place, the war had large intensity and deaths were increasing
Hussein was captured in 2003, but there were still problems
Economy started stabilizing slowly with the restore of public sources
Its said that the the next 100 will be the real American Century and despite the issues and depression after the terrorist attack, the U.S. is still the strongest nation in the world. We have strong military power and our economy is depended on.
The ultimate goal is to give liberty to all people, and spread democracy throughout the world