Researching Your Essay: Students should use at least 3 varied sources such as the personal testimony, books and the Internet. Wikipedia is not a reliable source The following are just a small sample of web sites and books available to you as you research your essay about resisters and rescuers.
Web Sites: Yad Vashem,, the Jewish people’s living memorial to the Holocaust is an excellent source to read about the “Righteous Among the Nations… the small minority of individuals who individuals who mustered extraordinary courage to uphold human values.”.
A Christian’sTestimony. Boston: Beacon Press, 1988.
The author was a member of the Polish Underground and a Righteous Gentile who tried to save the lives of Polish Jews and also provide weapons and other assistance to the fighters in the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. Block, Gay, and Malka Drucker. Rescuers: Portraits of Moral Courage in the Holocaust. New York: Holmes and Meier, 1992.
A series of 49 personal reminiscences of non-Jewish citizens in various European nations who risked their lives to hide resident Jews from the Nazi horror. Brecker, Elinor J. Shindler’s Legacy, True Story of the List Survivors.
Plume, 1995 Gilbert, Martin. The Righteous: The Unsung Heroes of the Holocuast: Holt Paperbooks, 2004
Distinguished historian Sir Martin Gilbert explores the courage of those who, throughout Germany and in every occupied country, took incredible risks to help Jews whose fate would have been sealed without them. Indeed, many lost their lives for their efforts.
Gold, Allison Leslie. A Special Fate: Chiune Sugihara: Hero of the Holocaust, Scholastic 2000 Risking his life and the lives of his family members, Mr. Sugihara, a Japanese diplomat stationed in Lithuania, save several thousand Jews from certain death.
Goldberger, Leo (ed.) The Rescue of the Danish Jews: Moral Courage Under Stress. New York University Press.1987
The author, a professor of Psychology at New York University, was among the Jews who escaped to Sweden with the help of his fellow Danish citizens. Gutman, Israel, editor. The Encyclopedia of the Righteous Among the Nations: Rescuers of Jews during the Holocaust. Jerusalem: Yad Vashem, 2003
Hallie, Philip P. Lest Innocent Blood be Shed: The Story of the Village of Le Chambon, and How Goodness Happened There. New York: Harper & Row, 1979.
Laska, Vera. Women in the Resistance and in the Holocaust: Voices of Eyewitnesses. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1983.
The author was a member of the Czech resistance. A powerful and haunting statement about the important roles and experience of women during the Holocaust Lazare, Lucien. Rescue as Resistance: How Jewish Organizations Fought the Holocaust in France. Translated by Jeffrey M. Green. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996.
A survivor of the Holocaust and a distinguished scholar of Jewish history, Lucien Lazare presents a compelling defense of the Jewish resistance movement in France during World War II, arguing that rescue was a genuine and significant way of fighting back. Levine, Ellen.Darkness Over Denmark: The Danish Resistance and the Rescue of the Jews, Holiday House, 2000
Based on the author's interviews with Danes who escaped, assisted with escapes, or joined the resistance. Meltzer, Milton. Rescue: The Story of How Gentiles Saved Jews in the Holocaust. New York: HarperCollins 1991.
The story of those gentiles who sought to rescue their Jewish neighbors from annihilation during World War II. Paldiel, Mordecai. The Righteous Among the Nations. Jerusalem: Yad Vashem, 2007. Profiles more than 150 recipients of the Yad Vashem "Righteous Among the Nations" award, given to non-Jews who risked their lives to save Jews during the Holocaust. They are just a few of the 21,310 who have received the award since its inception in 1963 Rittner, Carol, and Sondra Myers, editors. The Courage to Care: Rescuers of Jews During the Holocaust. New York: New York University Press, 1986.Features the first person accounts of rescuers and of survivors whose stories address the basic issue of individual responsibility: the notion that one person can act—and that those actions can make a difference.
Tec, Nechama. When Light Pierced the Darkness: Christian Rescue of Jews in Nazi-occupied Poland. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.
Tec, herself a survivor helped by Poles, vividly recreates what it was like to pass and hide among Christians and what it was like for Poles to rescue Jews. Concentrating on Poland, the Nazi center for Jewish annihilation, Tec amassed a vast array of published accounts, unpublished testimonies, and interviews, yielding case histories of over 500 Polish helpers
Werner, Emmy, A Conspiracy Of Decency: The Rescue Of The Danish Jews During World War IiWerner chronicles the Danes' spontaneous outpouring of support for the Jews as well as efforts by the Swedes to provide the refugees with shelter.
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The ORANGE COUNTY STOP HATE NOW contest was established to promote tolerance and understanding through education. This year’s essay uses the events of the Holocaust to explore issues of moral behavior and how these lessons are pertinent to our lives. According to Jewish tradition, “Whoever saves one life, it is as if he saved the entire world”. In a world of war and total ethical breakdown, a small number of individuals exhibited moral courage, determined to uphold human values. They stood in marked contrast to the world’s indifference and hostility to the Jewish people that prevailed before and during World War II.
Using at least 3 sources students will submit an essay describing a courageous act of resistance or rescue, which occurred during the Holocaust. A successful essay will focus on the following subjects:
Why did these individuals refuse to remain silent?
The risks these individuals took, both physical, and emotional and the benefits of exhibiting moral courage and standing up against injustice.
What can you learn from their actions? How can we apply these lessons to our daily lives?
What can students do to combat prejudice and hate?
This is not a book report. Essay judges are interested in your personal reflections to the event in addition to the person you have chosen as an example of rescue and resistance.
The Common Core Standards for Writing History Text are included.
1. Writers must be residents of Orange County, students in grades 8-12 currently attending public or private or being home schooled.
2. Maximum word count per essay is 1,000 words for grades 8/9, and 1,500 words for grades 10-12
3. All submissions must (1) have a title, (2) be typed, and (3) be double-spaced Staple the essay entrance form filled out completely to the essay. Do not write your name or the name of your school on your essay
4. A minimum of three references must be cited in a bibliography/ work cited page. Wikipedia does not count as a reference. Please see our bibliography for a list of references
5. Submit your completed entry form along with the essay and mail NO LATER THAN DECEMBER 31, 2014 to:
ORANGE COUNTY STOP HATE NOW
The Jewish Federation of Greater Orange County
292 North Street 2nd Floor
Newburgh, New York 12550
6. DO NOT plagiarize.
7. DO NOT submit more than one entry
Prize will be awarded at the Annual Holocaust Remembrance Day observance in April of 2015. Winner will be announced in February 2015. Standards for Writing History & Science Text WHST.6-8.1: Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content.
a. Introduce claim(s) about a topic or issue, acknowledge and distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically.
b. Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant accurate data and evidence that demonstrate an understanding of the topic or text, using credible sources.
c. Use words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
d. Establish and maintain a formal style.
e. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented. WHST.9-10.1: Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content.
a. Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s), and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among the claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence
b. Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly, supplying data and evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both claim(s) and counterclaims in a discipline-appropriate form and in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level and concerns.
c. Use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence and counterclaims.
d. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
e. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from or supports the argument presented. WHST.11-12.1: Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content.
a. Introduce precise knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that logically sequences the claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
b. Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant data and evidence for each while pointing out the strength and limitations of both claim(s) and counterclaims in a discipline-appropriate form that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases.
c. Use words, phrases, and clauses as well as varied syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.
d. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they area are writing.
e. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from or supports the argument presented.