Ik kan een langer betoog en lezingen begrijpen en zelfs complexe redeneringen volgen, wanneer het onderwerp redelijk vertrouwd is. Ik kan de meeste nieuws- en actualiteitenprogramma’s op de tv begrijpen. Ik kan het grootste deel van films in standaarddialect begrijpen.
Ik kan artikelen en verslagen lezen die betrekking hebben op eigentijdse problemen, waarbij de schrijvers een bepaalde houding of standpunt innemen. Ik kan eigentijds literair proza begrijpen.
Vervolg ERK-niveaus V6 leerling
B2 productie (spreken)
Ik kan duidelijke, gedetailleerde beschrijvingen presenteren over een breed scala van onderwerpen die betrekking hebben op mijn interessegebied. Ik kan een standpunt over een actueel onderwerp verklaren en de voordelen en nadelen van diverse opties uiteenzetten.
B2 interactie (gesprekken voeren)
Ik kan zodanig deelnemen aan een vloeiend en spontaan gesprek, dat normale uitwisseling met moedertaalsprekers redelijk mogelijk is. Ik kan binnen een vertrouwde context actief deelnemen aan een discussie en hierin mijn standpunten uitleggen en ondersteunen.
Tot slot: schrijven
Ik kan een duidelijke, gedetailleerde tekst schrijven over een breed scala van onderwerpen die betrekking hebben op mijn interesses. Ik kan een opstel of verslag schrijven, informatie doorgeven of redenen aanvoeren ter ondersteuning voor of tegen een specifiek standpunt. Ik kan brieven schrijven waarin ik het persoonlijk belang van gebeurtenissen en ervaringen aangeef.
what do you know about the amount of English used at that university/for that type of study?
how can you find out, if you have no idea?
Engagement activity 1 variation a: – without computers
Explain SE involves writing an academic essay!
What is ‘’academic’’? what is ‘’academic English’’?
brainstorm in class – group work
a) definitions on blackboard
b) definitions on roll of wall paper to be stuck to one wall of the classroom
> build up a WORD BANK during this project or make a file on www.wrts.nl
students also take notes –to be kept for the final stage (reflection).
Engagement activity 1 variation b: - with computers
what is ‘Academic English’ ?
brainstorm in class
take notes – these must be kept for the final stage (reflection).
go to the following website and take the Sylvia Plath test (second half of the page): http://www.courseworks.unimelb.edu.au/researchandwriting/academicstyle.php
Samples of definitions
academic (THEORETICAL) Show phonetics adjective theoretical and not related to practical effects in real life: a purely academic argument/question (retrieved from: http://dictionary.cambridge.org/define.asp?key=403&dict=CALD )
Definition of academic (adjective) describing school and university activities; educated; scholastic
Academic English is much more than conversational English. To be successful in classes that are conducted completely in English, students need to be able to read large amounts of academic material in English, understand lectures given in English, think critically about the ideas they have read and heard, and express their understandings and critiques of ideas through speaking and writing in English.(retrieved from: http://www.tuj.ac.jp/newsite/main/app/academic_english.html )
Engagement activity 2 - focus on genres begripsvorming
give out sample texts a.o. set of written instructions, (tv) news, lesson fragment, joke, scientific definition, paragraph from academic article, etc.
find out which text is which genre – you have approx. 10 minutes to do this.
N.B. different sets per group.
Sample genres – excerpts: complete sets or fragments available on website
Amputees can feel relief from phantom limb pain just by watching someone else rub their hands together, a study says. The treatment appears to fool the brain that it is their missing hand being massaged, California researchers say. New Scientist magazine reports that it harnesses nerve cells in the brain which become active when watching someone else carry out an action. UK experts said this kind of therapy may help amputees, as long as they can go along with the illusion.
A schoolteacher asked her primary six class to construct sentences with the words: defeat, detail, defense.
There was a pause before a pupil raised his hand and said he could make a sentence with them: "The cow jumped over defense and detail went over defeat."
text 3 “But he has nothing on at all,” said a little child at last. “Good heavens! listen to the voice of an innocent child,” said the father, and one whispered to the other what the child had said. “But he has nothing on at all,” cried at last the whole people.
How To Do It:
1. Take an egg from the fridge and place it in the egg cup in the centre of the table.
2. Switch on the radio or hifi and turn it up to a comfortable volume.
Engagement (activity 2 cont.): genres and their features begripsvorming tekstkenmerken
Make use of the matrix on the following page/slide
Which text shows which features?
N.B. This matrix comes from Scaffolding language, scaffolding learning, Pauline Gibbons, (2002), p. 58
type of text
‘what I did at the weekend’’
‘Jack and Beanstalk’’
‘how to boil an egg’’
‘should smoking be banned’
to tell what happened
to give information
to tell how to do something
to persuade others, to take a position and justify it
in pairs of two, students compare and discuss notes. They try and write a reconstruction of the text.
Dictogloss technique (activity 1 cont.)
next in groups of four: repeat the process, filling in possible gaps.
read text again for the third time – pairs have chance to do some repair work
final result: check reconstructed text with sample text on overhead.
reflect on difficult words. Add these to the WORD BANK or file on www.wrts.nl
Sample dictogloss (easy)
Text 1 Dictogloss
What types of primary research can be done?
Many types of primary research exist. This guide is designed to provide you with an overview of primary research that is often done in writing classes.
Interviews: Interviews are one-on-one or small group question and answer sessions. Interviews will provide a lot of information from a small number of people and are useful when you want to get an expert or knowledgeable opinion on a subject.
Surveys: Surveys are a form of questioning that is more rigid than interviews and that involve larger groups of people. Surveys will provide a limited amount of information from a large group of people and are useful when you want to learn what a larger population thinks.
Observations: Observations involve taking organized notes about occurrences in the world. Observations provide you insight about specific people, events, or locales and are useful when you want to learn more about an event without the biased viewpoint of an interview.
Analysis: Analysis involves collecting data and organizing it in some fashion based on criteria you develop. They are useful when you want to find some trend or pattern. A type of analysis would be to record commercials on three major television networks and analyze gender roles.
Sample dictogloss (medium)
Text 2 Dictogloss: quotations
What are the differences among quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing?
These three ways of incorporating other writers' work into your own writing differ according to the closeness of your writing to the source writing.
Quotations must be identical to the original, using a narrow segment of the source. They must match the source document word for word and must be attributed to the original author.
Paraphrasing involves putting a passage from source material into your own words. A paraphrase must also be attributed to the original source. Paraphrased material is usually shorter than the original passage, taking a somewhat broader segment of the source and condensing it slightly.
Summarizing involves putting the main idea(s) into your own words, including only the main point(s). Once again, it is necessary to attribute summarized ideas to the original source. Summaries are significantly shorter than the original and take a broad overview of the source material.
Why use quotations, paraphrases, and summaries?
Quotations, paraphrases, and summaries serve many purposes. You might use them to . . .
Provide support for claims or add credibility to your writing
Refer to work that leads up to the work you are now doing
Give examples of several points of view on a subject
Call attention to a position that you wish to agree or disagree with
Highlight a particularly striking phrase, sentence, or passage by quoting the original
Emily L.R. Harrison, and Sherry A. McKee www.sciencedirect.com/science
Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, United States Available online 21 November 2007.
Binge drinking and non-daily cigarette smoking are behaviors that are both problematic and prevalent in young adults. Although the relationship between drinking and daily smoking has been well categorized, the intersection between drinking and smoking in non-daily smokers has not been heavily researched. Past 30-day and within-episode patterns of alcohol and cigarette use were collected in young adult non-daily smokers (N = 40). Results demonstrated that 79% of smoking occurred on drinking days. Alcohol use was significantly greater on smoking days with the result that drinking to risky binge levels was more likely to occur on a smoking day. Smoking typically occurred after a certain level of alcohol pre-load (2.87 drinks). Together these results confirm that young adult non-daily smokers often concurrently use alcohol and cigarettes. Research is needed to identify possible mechanisms underlying the association between binge drinking and cigarette use in this vulnerable population.
Building knowledge (activity 2) – text reconstruction & adding subheadings
Give out scrambled fragments of an academic text (angry partner tore up your one and only copy of this essential piece of work...) www.mindthegap.slo.nl materialenbank/building knowledge
Ask students to reconstruct the original.
Could they think of adequate (sub)headings?
Sample text for text reconstruction
How to Read an Academic Article
by Becky Rosenberg, Ph.D. Click on link below and print the article. Cut up and put pieces in envelope(s). Make sure to have enough sets available for your class.