1998Virginia Open Round # 7

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1998Virginia Open

Round # 7
1. It was proposed by a special committee led by Henry Pinckney of South Carolina. When it was not renewed at the opening of the second session of Congress in December, William Slade took advantage of the opportunity to present new petitions, resulting in the decision by a combined front of Democrats to adopt an even stricter version. FTP, identify this regulation, which was rescinded in 1844, and which was originally put in place in response to Thomas Morris, James Buchanan, and John Quincy Adams, whose presentations of petitions for abolition to Congress annoyed pro-slavery Southerners.

Answer: the gag rule or gag resolution

2. He wrote a book on Greek comedy, developed a chronology based on the Trojan War, and suggested that a day be added to the Egyptian calendar every four years. His scientific achievements include a map of 675 stars and a measurement of the obliquity of the ecliptic, but he is best known for an experiment he made around 240 B.C. FTP, name this Greek polymath, who used his knowledge of the distance between Syene and Alexandria and the position of the sun on the summer solstice to determine the circumference of the earth.

Answer: Eratosthenes

3. After returning from medical studies at Leyden, he was employed by Samuel Richardson, and his first literary success came in 1764 with The Traveller. Author of An Enquiry into the Present State of Polite Learning in Europe, stories like "Asem, an Eastern Tale" were published in The Bee. FTP, identify this Irish born writer, whose works include The Good Natured Man, The Deserted Village, The Vicar of Wakefield, and She Stoops to Conquer.

Answer: Oliver Goldsmith

4. After leaving school at the age of 16, he went to work as a railroad engineer, but quit that job in 1848 to become a sub-editor of The Economist. The probable model for Austin Feverel in Meredith's The Ordeal of Richard Feverel and for Mr. Casaubon in Middlemarch, his 1852 essay on the "Development Hypothesis" preceded Darwin in proposing a general theory of evolution, though it lacked a concept of natural selection. FTP, name this English thinker, the author of First Principles, Social Statics, and The Principles of Psychology whose "synthetic philosophy" included social Darwinism.

Answer: Herbert Spencer

5. He took counterpoint lessons from Alexander Zemlinsky, married Zemlinskys sister, and played cello in Zemlinskys group Polyhymnia. A triskadecaphobic, he crossed out the second a in the title of his unfinished opera so that there would only be twelve letters in it. FTP, name this composer of choral works like Kol Nidre, A Survivor from Warsaw, and Pierrot Lunaire, better known for Moses and Aron, Transfigured Night, and as the inventor of the twelve-tone system.

Answer: Arnold Schoenberg

6. It was first invented in 1745 by Ewald von Kleist, but it was independently developed a few months later by Peter van Musschenbrock, and its current name comes from association with the latter. It contains a brass chain connected to a stopper, which is inside a glass container coated with tinfoil. FTP, identify this kind of capacitor, whose name derives from the fact that it was originally used at a university in Holland.

Answer: the Leyden jar

7. His first novel tells the story of Etsuko, who is attempting to cope with the suicide of her daughter Keiko. His second novel, set just after World War II, describes the life of Masuji Ono, a former propagandist. FTP, identify this author of The Unconsoled, A Pale View of Hills, and An Artist of the Floating World, best known for a Booker Prize winning novel about an English butler, The Remains of the Day.

Answer: Kazuo Ishiguro

8. He served as dean of Columbias law school from 1910 to 1923, but left the position to become attorney general. He argued that the government must be allowed to govern in his dissent in U.S. vs. Butler, and he claimed that states should not be allowed to legislate religious belief in his lone dissent in 1940s Jehovahs Witnesses Case. FTP, identify this jurist from New Hampshire, a supporter of the New Deal who joined the Court in 1925 and who, in 1941, became the 11th Chief Justice.

Answer: Harlan Fiske Stone

9. When Karl Schafer won the men's figure skating title, he denied Gillis Grafstrom the chance to win four in a row. Billy Fiske led the victorious four-man bobsled team, which included Eddie Eagen on its crew, the only man to win gold medals in both the Winter and Summer Games. FTP, identify this Winter Olympics, in which the U. S. swept all four speed skating events, although Canada won its fourth consecutive gold in hockey, the third winter games and the first held in the United States.

Answer: the 1932 Winter Olympics or the Lake Placid Winter Olympics

10. After meeting John Flamsteed and Edmund Halley on a trip to England, he returned home and began publishing a scientific magazine, Daedelus hyperboreus. In his Economia regni animalis, he showed that the brain does not move in rhythm with the heart and explained the purpose of cerebrospinal fluid, but he is better known for more abstruse speculations, such as his claims that the Trinity was unified in one divine human and that material reality corresponds to spiritual truth. FTP, identify this man, cited as the type of the mystic by Emerson in Representative Men, whose body was moved to Uppsala Cathedral in 1908 by the Swedish government.

Answer: Emanuel Swedenborg

11. The title character falls in love with Giselle, the sister of his fianc┼Że Linda, and is shot when her father Giorgio Viola mistakes him for an intruder. After his partner, Martin Decoud, drowns himself, the protagonist acts to save Doctor Monygham, who is in love with Emilia Gould. FTP, identify this novel set in Costaguanas province of Sulaco, in which Charles Gould gives his silver to the title character, a work of Joseph Conrad.

Answer: Nostromo

12. His early work, such as The Pure Theory of Capital, dealt with the problems caused by industrial fluctuations. His later work addresses the role of prices in controlling the economy, a question considered in his Law, Legislation and Liberty. FTP, identify this man, who was a professor at London University, the University of Chicago, and the universities of Freiburg and Salzburg, who argued for free markets and individual liberty in The Road to Serfdom, and who shared the Nobel Prize in 1974 with Gunnar Myrdal.

Answer: Friedrich von Hayek

13. It was divided into two regions with capitals at Dyrrachium and Acarnania under the Byzantine Empire, and after 1204 went from being an independent despotate, to a return to Byzantine rule, to becoming a part of Serbia, to absorption by the Ottoman Empire. In antiquity, it was a kingdom ruled by the Molossian tribe, whose first king was Alexander, the brother of Olympias and the uncle of Alexander the Great. FTP, identify this region, which lies between the Pindos Mountains and the Ionian Sea, today a part of Albania, whose most famous king, who won some victories that really werent worth the trouble, was named Pyrrhus.

Answer: Epirus

14. Although it was rumored that he had given up art after the publication of The Green Box, he actually spent the last twenty years of his life working secretly on an assemblage, Given: 1. the waterfall, 2. the illuminating gas. He collaborated with Man Ray on Anemic Cinema, while his Three Standard Stoppages was created by dropping three meter-long strings from a height of one meter. FTP, identify this artist of The Chocolate Grinder and The Bride Stripped Bare by her Bachelors, Even, a founder of Dada who is best known for a painting which scandalized the Armory Show, Nude Descending a Staircase.

Answer: Marcel Duchamp

15. While working at Graz, he discovered a set of bands, which are named for him, that result when a distribution of light leads to a change of illumination at a point. According to his "criterion," a theory should only use propositions which can lead to statements about observable phenomena, a position which led him to be grouped with the positivists. FTP, name this scientist, who is best known for a paper published with Salcher in 1887, in which he showed that the ratio of projectile velocity and sound velocity is related to the angle made by a shock wave, a supersonic discovery which led to a famous number being named for him.

Answer: Ernst Mach

16. He opposed the cautious foreign policy of Lord Aberdeen, favoring the Italian liberals, opposing Louis Philippe, and gaining Hong Kong by the treaty of Nanking. He sent a squadron to Greece to ensure that debts owed to Don Pacifico, a citizen from Gibraltar, would be repaid, but was dismissed by Russell a year later for not consulting the cabinet before welcoming Louis Napoleons seizure of power. FTP, identify this British statesman, who returned as prime minister in 1855 and successfully closed the Black Sea at the treaty of Paris, who died in 1865 and who was memorably preferred to Pitt the Elder in a barroom brawl.

Answer: Henry John Temple, Viscount Palmerston

17. His lesser known works include a play, In the Clap Shack, and a collection of essays, The Quiet Dust. His second novel, The Long March, depicts a group of Marine recruits, and was followed by Set This House on Fire in 1960. FTP, identify this American writer, who depicted a young woman who commits suicide in his first novel, Lie Down in Darkness, and whose other works include Darkness Visible, Sophies Choice, and The Confessions of Nat Turner.

Answer: William Styron

18. Its name means boiling pot, and was given to the river because of its gas bubbles. It starts in Hillsdale County and curves south before reaching the city of the same name, after which it flows northwest into Lake Michigan. FTP, identify this river, which passes Albion, Marshall, and Battle Creek, as well as the city of the same name, which is the home of Nazareth College and Western Michigan University.

Answer: the Kalamazoo river

19. He eventually was combined with Sokar, a god of the dead. He was the father of Nefertem by his wife, the lion goddess Sakhmet, and according to some myths, he created the world out of mud in his aspect of water god, Nun. FTP, identify this Egyptian deity, who was always pictured as a person holding an ankh, and who was the chief god of Memphis.

Answer: Ptah

20. To discover how it was synthesized, Rudolf Schoenheimer gave rats heavy water to drink. After Schoenheimer committed suicide, his associate David Rittenberg teamed up with Konrad Bloch to feed rats acetate ions, and again the deuterium tag showed up in this kind of molecule. Bloch later discovered that acetate formed squalene, a compound which leads to the formation of this molecule found in the adrenal glands, myelin sheaths, and along with certain proteins. FTP, identify this substance, too much of which can cause gallstones and atherosclerosis, which is the foundation of steroids.

Answer: cholesterol

21. She collaborated with Arnand d'Usseau on Ladies of the Corridor and with Elmer Rice on Close Harmony. Her poetry first appeared in Vogue in 1916, and would be collected in volumes such as Sunset Gun, Death and Taxes, and Not so Deep as a Well. FTP, identify this writer of Laments for the Living, After such Pleasures, and Enough Rope, a drama critic best remembered as the most savage wit of the Algonquin Circle.

Answer: Dorothy Parker

1. Identify these laws that tried to solve the problem of black-body radiation, FTP each.

1. This law states that doubling the absolute temperature of a body will increase its absolute radiation 16 times.

Answer: Stefans law

2. The formula developed by this German physicist correctly described the energy distribution at the violet end of the spectrum, but failed to cover the red end.

Answer: Wilhelm Wien (veen)

3. While Wiens law only worked for the violet end, this equation named for two men only described the red end successfully.

Answer: the Rayleigh-Jeans equation

2. Answer the following questions about an opera, for the stated number of points.

1. 15 points: This opera in three acts, with a libretto by Ferdinand Lemaire, was first performed at Weimar in December 1877, two years after the first act had been hissed off the stage at Colonne.

Answer: Samson and Delilah or Samson et Dalila

2. 5 points: Name the composer of Samson and Delilah.

Answer: Camille Saint-Saens (san-sohns)

3. 10 points: This other composer, a virtuoso pianist to whom Saint-Saens dedicated his G minor piano concerto, presented the Weimar premiere of Samson and Delilah.

Answer: Franz Liszt
3. Answer these questions about a twentieth century author FTP each.

1. His dramatic works include Let Man Live and The Man Without a Soul, though he is better known for prose works like The Hangman and Guest of Reality.

Answer: Par Lagerkvist

2. This short novel by Par Lagerkvist takes as its protagonist the criminal who was spared in lieu of Jesus.

Answer: Barabbas

3. The title character of this novel is Piccoline, who gains his post at the court of a prince during the Renaissance by strangling the former officeholder.

Answer: The Dwarf
4. Answer these questions about American history from the 1790's, for the stated number of points.

1. 5 points: General Anthony Wayne's victory at this 1794 battle in Ohio brought the Northwest frontier under control.

Answer: the battle of Fallen Timbers

2. 10 points: Also known as the Treaty of San Lorenzo, this agreement of October, 1795 allowed Americans to freely navigate the Mississippi river.

Answer: Pinckney's Treaty

3. 15 points: This agreement was signed on August 3, 1795, by 12 Indian tribes, and created a line of demarcation between Indian lands and areas open to American settlers.

Answer: the Treaty of Greenville
5. Answer these questions about the atmosphere FTP each.

1. In 1902, these two engineers independently suggested that there must be a layer of ions in the atmosphere that reflects radio waves, a layer which came to be named for them.

Answer: Arthur Kennelly and Oliver Heaviside (the Kennelly-Heaviside layer)

2. In 1922, this Englishman proved the existence of the Kennelly-Heaviside layer, and went on to show that there were higher ionic layers, which are now named for him.

Answer: Edward Appleton (the Appleton layer)

3. This region of the atmosphere lies beyond the ionosphere and, at its upper limits, fades into outer space.

Answer: the exosphere
6. Answer these questions about Sikhism for the stated number of points.

1. 5 points: This sacred book of the Sikhs was compiled by the fifth guru, Arjun.

Answer: the Adi Granth

2. 10 points: Govind, the last guru, founded this military order in 1699.

Answer: the Khalsa

3. 15 points: This is the prayer composed by Guru Nanak which opens the Adi Granth and is recited daily by Sikhs. Its first lines, known as the Mul Mantra, are considered the most important summary of Sikh belief.

Answer: the japji
7. Identify the contemporary dramatists from works on a 10-5 basis.

1. 10 points: The Room and No Man's Land

5 points: The Birthday Party

Answer: Harold Pinter

2. 10 points: Quality Street and What Every Woman Knows

5 points: Peter Pan

Answer: James M. Barrie

3. 10 points: A Patriot for Me and A Sense of Detachment

5 points: Look Back in Anger

Answer: John Osborne

8. Identify these figures involved in the war of the Seven Against Thebes for the stated number of points.

1. 15 points: While Hypsipyle was showing the seven to a spring, a dragon killed this baby, the son of Lycurgus, whom she was nursing. Ignoring this omen, they buried the boy and initiated the Nemean Games in his memory.

Answer: Opheltes

2. 5 points: The whole conflict began when Eteocles expelled this man, his brother, from the city.

Answer: Polyneices

3. 10 points: After Polyneices left Thebes, he went to Argos and married the daughter of this man, who swore to help him get Thebes back. He was the only one of the seven not to be killed in battle.

Answer: Adrastus
9. Identify these twentieth century British artists, for the stated number of points.

1. 5 points: He is best known for such disturbing images as his Study After a Portrait of Innocent X by Velasquez.

Answer: Francis Bacon

2. 10 points: This grandson of a famous psychoanalyst, who became famous with 1951s Interior at Paddington, is generally considered the best living British painter.

Answer: Lucian Freud

3. 15 points: He is known for nude portraits of his wives, Hilda Carline and Patricia Preece, but is most famous for a work first exhibited in 1927, The Resurrection: Cookham.

Answer: Stanley Spencer
10. Answer these questions about a poet, for the stated number of points.

1. 15 points: As a thirteen-year old, he published a poem in which he called for the resignation of Thomas Jefferson, but he is best known for a poem which he wrote four years later.

Answer: William Cullen Bryant

2. 5 points: William Cullen Bryant's best known poem, its title comes from the Greek for "view of death."

Answer: Thanatopsis

3. 10 points: In this Bryant poem, first published in 1818, the narrator is solaced when he sees the titular bird at the end of the day and realizes that there is a divine force at work in nature.

Answer: To a Waterfowl
11. Identify these battles of the Napoleonic Wars, for the stated number of points.

1. 5 points: This 1813 battle was also known as the "battle of the nations," as the Austrians, Prussians, and Swedes forced the French to retreat.

Answer: Leipzig

2. 10 points: This name is given to two battles fought on the same day. One was at Auerstadt, where Davout beat the Prussians, and Napoleon beat the Prince of Hohenlohe at the other.

Answer: Jena

3. 15 points: At this 1809 battle on the Danube, Napoleon defeated the army of Archduke Charles Louis, crushing the Austrian forces.

Answer: Wagram
12. Identify the linguists FTP each.

1. This longtime professor at the University of Copenhagen wrote Modern English Grammar and developed his own language, Novial.

Answer: Jens Otto Jespersen

2. The author of Principles of Historical Phonology and Language, Aphasia and Pholonogical Universals, he claimed in Fundamentals of Language that 12 binary oppositions might explain the contrasts observed in all languages.

Answer: Roman Jakobson

3. He started a revolution with his Syntactic Structures, and further developed his transformational-generative model in Aspects of the Theory of Syntax.

Answer: Noam Chomsky
13. Answer these questions about an event which occurred in the 1950's FTP each.

1. Under an Executive Order issued by the President in 1953, this man was suspended and subsequently investigated by the Gray committee, which decided that he was loyal but voted against reinstating him as chairman of a General Advisory Commission.

Answer: Robert Oppenheimer

2. This rear admiral, who was chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission at the time, advised Oppenheimer to resign in order to avoid charges, but he refused to do so.

Answer: Lewis Strauss

3. One of the biggest blows to Oppenheimer was testimony by this Hungarian born scientist, who claimed that Oppenheimer had shown insufficient enthusiasm for the H-bomb.

Answer: Edward Teller
14. Answer these questions about a form of medicine FTP each.

1. This system, which was formalized in the eighteenth century, relies on two basic principles, the Law of Similars and the Law of Infinitesimals.

Answer: homeopathy

2. This scientist, the author of Materia Medica Pura, is regarded as the founder of homeopathy.

Answer: C. F. S. Hahnemann

3. Hahnemann contrasted homeopathy with orthodox medicine, which he called by this name, because it prescribes drugs on the basis of other systems, not similar ones.

Answer: allopathy
15. Identify these works by Don DeLillo FTP each.

1. This American Book Award winner tells the story of a professor of Hitler Studies who tries to obtain a drug that fights the fear of death.

Answer: White Noise

2. This 1988 novel was controversial for its fictional portrayal of Lee Harvey Oswald.

Answer: Libra

3. DeLillo's most recent novel, it was a finalist for the Pulitzer Prize last year.

Answer: Underworld
16. Identify these descendants of Charlemagne FTP each.

1. Under the treaty of Verdun, he was made king of the West Franks, and received a realm roughly contiguous with medieval France.

Answer: Charles the Bald

2. This son of Charles the Bald left a monastery in 870 and began to plot against his father, but was blinded and fled to the court of Louis the German.

Answer: Carloman

3. In 884, this son of Louis the German, who was already King of the East Franks, was chosen as king of the West Franks instead of Charles the Simple, but was deposed in favor of Odo three years later.

Answer: Charles the Fat
17. Identify the following scientific terms, all of which were coined by the German biologist Walther Flemming, FTP each.

1. In 1879, Flemming discovered that some red dyes could stain a substance in the cell nucleus. He named these granules after the Greek word for color.

Answer: chromatin

2. Flemming coined this term for a cellular process from the Greek word for thread.

Answer: mitosis

3. Flemming gave this term to the object which divides in two during mitosis, because the thread radiating away >from it reminded him of a star.

Answer: the aster
18. Identify the following celebrities, all of whom at one time worked at the same Sears in Queens, FTP each.

1. This Star Search winner made his film debut in Do the Right Thing, but is better known for an eponymous sitcom.

Answer: Martin Lawrence

2. Martin Lawrence worked at Sears with Cheryl James and Sandra Denton, who are better known as this musical duo.

Answer: Salt-N-Pepa

3. This comedic duo, best known for their House Party movies, also worked with Salt-N-Pepa.

Answer: Kid 'N Play
19. Identify these geographical features of Scandinavia FTP each.

1. This body of water lies between Denmark and Sweden.

Answer: the Kattegat

2. The island of Bornholm is in the western portion of this body of water, which also includes Oland and Gotland.

Answer: the Baltic Sea

3. The islands of Hiiumaa and Saaremaa lie to the northwest of this body of water.

Answer: the Gulf of Riga
20. Answer these questions about a battle of 1954 FTP each.

1. This French fortress in the mountains of north Vietnam was besieged for three months before surrendering on May 7.

Answer: Dien Bien Phu

2. This French general was the commander-in-chief at Dien Bien Phu.

Answer: Henri Navarre

3. This Viet Minh general led the communist assault on the fortress.

Answer: Vo Nguyen Giap

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