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Tables and Figures

TABLE 1: Percentage of Citizens Encountering Bribery by Sector by Country




Country

GDP per Cap

Educ

Legal

Health

Police

Reg & Perm

Tax

Tele

Elec

Water

Gas

Luxembourg

103.0

1.9

2.1

3.9

5.1

4.3

3.3

2.4

1.3

1.5

1.6

Norway

82.5

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.8

0.2

0.0

0.4

0.0

0.7

0.0

Iceland

64.2

0.1

1.7

0.5

0.9

0.7

0.2

0.5

0.2

0.3

0.0

Ireland

59.3

4.8

5.5

3.9

3.3

4.4

3.2

4.3

3.5

4.9

3.4

Denmark

57.1

1.6

1.1

1.3

2.1

1.1

1.0

2.0

0.9

1.3

1.4

Switzerland

56.2

0.6

0.8

0.7

2.1

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.2

0.3

0.8

Sweden

49.7

0.5

0.7

1.0

0.9

0.9

0.6

1.6

1.2

0.9

0.0

Netherlands

46.7

1.3

2.6

0.7

0.0

2.5

0.5

1.5

1.3

2.0

0.3

Finland

46.3

2.0

2.5

0.8

1.3

0.5

0.8

1.1

1.4

2.2

6.3

USA

45.6

1.7

4.7

1.7

1.8

2.3

1.9

1.5

0.9

1.4

0.6

UK

45.4

2.8

0.0

3.2

4.2

3.8

2.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Austria

44.9

8.3

2.4

2.9

0.7

9.2

3.4

2.6

1.4

1.4

0.0

France

42.0

1.1

1.4

3.1

2.2

3.7

0.3

0.6

0.5

0.6

0.0

Canada

40.3

0.9

0.7

1.5

1.1

0.9

0.2

0.8

0.0

0.0

0.3

Singapore

36.4

1.8

1.0

1.5

0.0

1.4

0.0

0.4

0.4

0.0

1.3

Japan

34.3

0.0

0.0

0.6

0.8

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.4

0.4

0.0

Spain

32.0

0.7

1.7

0.5

0.0

1.5

0.5

5.0

1.2

0.4

1.1

Hong Kong

29.9

3.8

6.3

2.4

4.3

2.6

3.5

2.9

3.3

3.6

2.3

Greece

28.0

2.8

6.2

22.1

2.1

8.0

7.9

2.1

4.0

2.4

2.9

S. Korea

21.7

1.0

3.2

0.4

2.0

0.3

0.6

0.3

0.0

0.0

0.0

Portugal

21.0

1.1

2.3

1.9

6.3

2.2

1.5

3.8

1.8

1.3

1.8

Czech Republic

16.8

3.7

8.8

8.3

10.9

13.1

2.4

2.3

2.1

2.0

2.2

Croatia

13.2

1.5

4.4

5.6

5.6

1.7

0.5

0.3

0.4

0.9

0.7

Lithuania

11.5

2.9

7.0

12.1

19.9

4.6

1.2

0.9

1.0

0.8

0.4

Poland

11.1

1.7

4.2

8.7

9.7

2.8

0.5

0.8

1.1

0.8

0.8

Russia

9.1

20.1

11.9

10.3

25.8

9.7

5.0

1.9

3.5

1.7

2.8

Turkey

9.0

5.4

4.5

3.8

16.6

4.9

1.6

1.4

1.4

1.0

2.5

Venezuela

8.3

13.9

27.6

16.5

16.3

29.9

6.3

3.2

6.5

5.8

7.1

Romania

7.7

11.1

10.4

17.4

9.9

10.6

3.3

1.5

1.9

2.6

1.5

Malaysia

7.0

1.7

5.3

2.1

30.3

1.9

0.0

1.6

1.4

1.5

0.4

Argentina

6.6

0.0

3.4

1.1

15.7

9.4

0.6

2.1

1.4

1.9

2.1

South Africa

5.9

3.9

7.1

2.9

11.2

5.4

1.1

2.2

2.6

2.3

0.9

Panama

5.8

13.9

21.6

12.3

32.7

14.4

19.6

10.4

11.7

11.2

13.2

Serbia

5.4

5.4

6.8

12.4

17.5

2.6

2.4

4.0

2.6

1.5

0.0

Bulgaria

5.2

2.8

12.9

9.8

21.5

1.8

1.2

0.0

0.3

0.3

0.0

Dominican Rep.

4.2

6.8

18.7

4.7

41.2

19.8

5.8

2.8

10.4

4.7

7.5

Bosn. & Herz.

4.0

5.3

10.0

9.8

13.0

2.3

1.3

1.1

0.9

0.7

0.7

Macedonia

3.9

5.4

9.5

7.9

8.7

6.5

3.6

0.5

1.7

1.3

3.4

Peru

3.8

8.3

25.9

4.1

42.4

11.7

5.8

4.7

3.4

4.7

0.7

Thailand

3.5

3.3

14.3

2.4

27.1

8.6

3.4

1.1

1.9

0.8

0.0

Albania

3.5

12.5

32.7

20.6

18.1

11.9

12.4

11.2

12.9

8.5

5.2

Maldives

3.5

18.0

12.2

19.3

20.7

10.2

8.8

4.4

4.6

4.5

5.0

Ukraine

3.1

22.8

27.2

26.1

44.3

11.9

13.3

1.9

2.1

2.9

3.2

Guatemala

2.5

4.7

5.6

1.6

25.8

5.4

0.0

2.3

2.6

3.1

1.4

Indonesia

1.9

8.8

10.3

3.8

59.7

40.2

0.0

2.1

6.1

1.9

0.6

Philippines

1.6

15.9

12.1

20.7

24.0

17.1

7.9

5.2

4.4

2.9

1.3

Bolivia

1.4

21.5

38.6

9.4

56.0

16.5

15.8

6.0

5.8

5.9

13.5

Nigeria

1.1

17.1

16.7

5.4

65.9

25.2

34.8

4.4

35.3

1.7

5.8

Cameroon

1.1

47.4

19.2

40.1

47.6

25.3

27.8

6.2

18.0

14.2

5.8

India

1.0

23.8

40.6

16.3

66.5

51.3

9.5

14.5

17.2

13.0

11.7

Senegal

1.0

7.8

17.4

11.9

43.3

27.7

18.5

1.4

7.3

3.6

4.3

Pakistan

0.9

16.5

31.9

21.2

55.7

37.3

36.6

20.0

43.4

23.4

16.3

Ghana

0.7

9.5

9.6

4.8

48.4

21.1

8.4

3.0

8.1

3.1

0.3

Source: 2007 Transparency International Global Corruption Barometer and Corruption Perceptions Index

Note: Sector scores represent reported bribery requests per contact; Columns color-coded by quartile; GDP per Capita measured in thousands of USD








TABLE 2: Public Sector Wages Relative to Private Sector Wages, 1990s





Men

Women

Bolivia

-0.17*

0.01*

Brazil

0.02

-0.08*

Chile

-0.025

0.17

Colombia

0.16

0.27

Costa Rica

0.17

0.47

Ecuador

0.30

0.26

El Salvador

0.27

0.67

Guatemala

-0.045

0.40

Honduras

0.01

0.60

Mexico

0.11

0.23

Nicaragua

-0.02

0.02

Panama

0.11

0.49

Paraguay

0.11

0.28

Peru

0.05

0.11

Dominican Republic

-0.37

0.23

Uruguay

-0.015

-0.04

Venezuela

-0.001

0.27

Note: * = Significant at 1%

Source: Panizza (2000), table A2; surveys from various dates in the 1990s




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