1 a comparative lca of rice straw utilization for fuels and fertilizer in Thailand



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1 - A comparative LCA of rice straw utilization for fuels and fertilizer in Thailand
SILALERTRUKSA, THAPAT; GHEEWALA, SHABBIR H.
Bioresource technology. 2013 Dec. 150(150) p. 412-419. -- [0960-8524 ] -- English. + [acces au document]

--> acidification; biogas; burning; combustion; electricity; fertilizers; global warming; rice straw; soil; thailand

--> Life cycle assessment of four rice straw utilization systems including; (1) direct combustion for electricity, (2) biochemical conversion to bio-ethanol and biogas, (3) thermo-chemical conversion to bio-DME, and (4) incorporation into the soil as fertilizer have been conducted to compare their environmental performances. The results showed that per ton of dry rice straw, the bio-ethanol pathway resulted in the highest environmental sustainability with regards to reductions in global warming and resource depletion potentials. Rice straw bio-DME was preferable vis-iu -vis reduction in acidification potential. Rice straw electricity and fertilizer also brought about several environmental benefits. The key environmental benefit of rice straw utilization came from avoiding the deleterious effects from burning straw in situ in the field. Recommendations for enhancing environmental sustainability of rice straw utilization for fuels and fertilizer are provided.
ref. [K04/IND500710422](AGRICOLA)

2 - Application of SEBAL for rice water consumption and productivity estimation through integrating remote sensing and census data in the Sanjiang Plain, China.
DU JIA; SONG KAISHAN; WANG ZONGMING; LI LIN
Northeast Institute of Geography and Agricultural Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130012, China.
Journal of Food, Agriculture & Environment; 2013. 11(3/4):972-978. 60 ref. -- [1459-0255 ] -- English + [acces au document]

--> crop yield; estimation; plant water relations; remote sensing; rice; water use; water use efficiency; oryza; oryza sativa; china



--> Crop consumptive water use and productivity are key elements to understanding water management performance. This study mapped rice water consumption, yield, and water productivity (WP) in 23 counties from May to October 2006 in the Sanjiang Plain by combining remotely sensed images, agricultural census and meteorological data. The actual evapotranspiration (ETa) was calculated using the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) model using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products in 12 snapshots in the growing season. The accuracy evaluation of daily ETa for the SEBAL indicates a relative error ranging from -11.3% to 27.6% compared with the Eddy Covariance system (10.5% on average). The seasonal SEBAL estimated ETa was comparable to that from the ground observation with a relative error of 8.9%. The results indicated that the ETa retrieval method based on remote sensing techniques could satisfy the requirements of regional ETa
estimation. The calculated average and maximum water consumption for rice were 446 and 494 mm, respectively. The WP ranged from 1.21 kg.m-3 to 1.94 kg.m-3 in the Sanjiang Plain. A close linear relationship between WP and rice yield was observed (R2=0.84), which indicated that the spatial pattern of WP was similar to that of yield, namely high WP associated with the higher yield in the Sanjiang Plain. A comparative analysis of ETa, rice yield and WP maps indicated greater space for improvement of water use efficiency in the Sanjiang Plain. By improving the irrigation schedule, the WP would be increased, which would in turn significantly reduce the irrigation water use and alleviate the water shortage in the Sanjiang Plain.
ref. [K20/20143023658](CAB ABSTRACTS)

3 - Economic Insights Required for Using Lifecycle Analysis for Policy Decisions
KLOTZ, RICHARD; BENTO, ANTONIO M.; LANDRY, JOEL R.
Recherche sur Internet; 2014; information non validée. [consultée le 28 janvier 2014]. + [acces au document]

--> "... We develop an analytic and numerical model that integrates land, food and fuel markets and is linked with a sectoral emissions model to examine how the amount of biofuel in the economy impacts the lifecycle emissions of a biofuel under different policies. Our central finding is that the change in GHG emissions due to a unit expansion in biofuel will vary dramatically in the amount of biofuel in the economy and with the policy driving the expansion. The emissions from a unit expansion in corn ethanol due to a blend mandate fall from 12 gCO2e/MJ to 3 gCO2e/MJ, as the quantity of ethanol in the economy increases from 6 to 15 billion gallons. For an input subsidy, emissions due to a unit of ethanol increase from 15 gCO2e/MJ to 26 gCO2e/MJ over the same increase in ethanol. We discuss the implications of these results for lifecycle analysis. (source : AgEcon) ..." (Source Internet)
ref.
[Z27/20140127164818](THE WEB)

4 - Environmental impacts of irrigated sugarcane production: Herbicide run-off dynamics from farms and associated drainage systems
DAVIS, A.M.; THORBURN, P.J.; LEWIS, S.E.; BAINBRIDGE, Z.T.; ATTARD, S.J.; MILLA, R.; BRODIE, J.E.
Agriculture, ecosystems & environment. 2013 Nov. 1. 180(180) p. 123-135. -- [0167-8809 ] -- English. + [acces au document]

--> ametryn; atrazine; diuron; drainage systems; dry season; ecosystems; environmental impact; farming systems; farms; guidelines; irrigation rates; models; pastures; pesticide application; rain; runoff; runoff irrigation; streams; sugarcane; sugars; watershe

--> Irrigation is vital to most of the sugarcane produced in Australia's ecologically sensitive Great Barrier Reef catchment area, although little is known regarding pesticide losses under irrigated sugarcane production. This study determined the dynamics of off-site paddock-scale pesticide movement and subsequent concentrations in local receiving environments in fully irrigated sugarcane farming systems of the lower Burdekin floodplain region, the largest sugar producing area in Australia. Chemical movement (both mass and concentration) in paddock surface run-off followed a similar pattern across sites in the region for several of the commonly applied herbicides such as diuron, atrazine and ametryn. Highest losses (loads and event concentrations) occurred in the first irrigation run-off events following application, with subsequent irrigation losses tailing off rapidly. Significant losses could also occur during wet season rainfall run-off events from paddocks with recent pesticide applications. There was a st ong seasonal signal evident in catchment monitoring results. Pesticide concentrations in nearby receiving creek systems were invariably an order of magnitude or more lower than values collected at paddock-scale, highlighting the considerable dilution that takes place over relatively short distances. While the concentrations found in receiving creek systems were considerably lower than direct paddock run-off, they regularly exceeded some ecological guidelines and results of pesticide risk modeling suggested concentrations, particularly under dry season conditions, posed considerable ecological risk to aquatic ecosystems.
ref.
[K04/IND500712012](AGRICOLA)

5 - Leaf color chart (LCC)-based attainment of yield potential, nitrogen use efficiency and partial factor productivity of irrigated lowland rice genotypes under varying NPK ratios
MAKAHIYA, H.A.; BASCON, M.V.; CRUZ, R.
42. CSSP [Crop Science Society of the Philippines] Scientific Conference, , Puerto Princesa City, Palawan (Philippines), 16-21 Apr 2012. ; Philippine Rice Research Inst., Maligaya, Science City of Mun
Philippine Journal of Crop Science (Philippines), v. 37(Supplement no. 1) p. 55. (Apr 2012) -- [0116-463X ] -- English + [acces au document]

--> oryza sativa; genotypes; npk fertilizers; fertilizer application; application rates; genetic variation; nutrient uptake

--> The PhilRice LCC is a handy and inexpensive tool developed to assess the in situ 'real time' rice crop need for nitrogen (N) fertilizer. When properly calibrated for a given variety, the LCC can indicate the time and amount of N fertilizer to apply. However, the availability of nitrogen can be influenced by phosphorus and potassium supply in the soil. Balanced N, P and K fertilizers is needed to improve yield, agronomic nitrogen use efficiency (ANUE)=kg grain in fertilizer plot-kg grain in unfertilized plot/kg N applied, and partial factor productivity (PFP)=kg grain/(kg N applied + effect of indigenous N supply). Inbred varieties, PSB Rc82 and NSIC Rc218 were tested in 2011 wet season. Treatments were (a) zero NPK fertilizer, b) LCC-based N management with 4:2:1 NPK ratio, c) LCC-based N management with 2:1:1 NPK ratio, d) LCC-based N management with 4:1:2 NPK ratio, and e) growth stage-based N management with 3:1:1 NPK ratio wherein 30 kg N/ha each was applied at mid-tillering, early panicle initiation an early flowering. Genotypic variation in yield was significant within fertilizer treatments. PSB Rc82 had higher yields in LCC-based N management with 4:2:1 NPK ratio (4.9 t/ha), 2:1:1 NPK ratio (4.8 t/ha) and growth stage-based N with 3:1:1 NPK ratio (5.1 t/ha) compared to NSIC Rc218 (3.7, 3.8 and 4.0 t/ha). Treatment differences were significant in ANUE and PFP within the varieties LCC-based N with 4:1:2 NPK ratio had the highest ANUE of 16.4 kg grain/N applied for PSB Rc82 and 8.3 kg grain/kg N applied for NSIC Rc218 across fertilizer treatments. Highest PFPs of 73.1 and 62.0 kg grain/kg N were obtained for PSB Rc82 and NSIC Rc218 with 4:1:2 NPK ratio. Varying NPK ratio could influence the yield, ANUE and PFP of a given variety.
ref.
[K05/PH2013000797](AGRIS)

6 - Life Cycle Assessment of Palm Oil Biodiesel Production in Malaysia
MOHAMMADI ASHNANI, MOHAMMAD HOSSEIN; JOHARI, ANWAR; HASHIM, HASLENDA; HASANI, ELHAM
Applied Mechanics and Materials. 2013. 465-466, , 1080-1086 -- [1662-7482] + [acces au document]
ref.
[Z27/20140128143755](CROSSREF)

7 - Reducing environmental impact and cost of production for drying fruits.
MURAD, E.; HARAGA, G.; CULAMET, A.; RADU, M.
University Politehnica, Bucharest, Romania.
Fruit Growing Research; 2013. 29:77-83. 17 ref. -- [2286-0304 ] -- English + [acces au document]

--> apples; bioenergy; biomass; carbon; carbon sequestration; charcoal; driers; drying; efficiency; energy; energy conversion; environmental impact; fruit; fuels; heat; organic amendments; production costs; pruning trash; soil amendments; malus; malus pumila

--> To reduce the production costs for heat used in drying fruit plants was studied using of local biomass from tree branch pruning. The average annual get 3 t/ha biomass whit energy potential of 37 GJ/ha at a cost of up to 60 Euro/t. biomass at 10-50 mm chopped and dried below 20% can be gasefied with TLUD process characterized by high energy conversion efficiency, stability and safety in operation, emissions of CO and PM very low. TLUD process produces on average and 15% biochar that can be used as fuel or as agricultural amendment to increase fertility and for atmospheric carbon sequestration. There have been experiments simulated by model of USCMER 30/60 MGB dryer equipped with two thermal modules TLUD FORTE-40 for apple slices drying heat of the apple prinings. Biomass used and biochar resulting chemical and energy were defined as micro-gasification process TLUD. That can dry 205 kg of apple slices in 6 hours with 74 kg of dry biomass to 10% of that remains and 12.2 kg biochar, biochar with or without 52 k biomass, which costs Euro 8.55 or Euro 5.97, ie 4.3 or 6.1 times cheaper than diesel. On dry ton of sliced apple it can produce 59.6 kg biochar with soil seize -174.8 kg. CO2.
ref.
[K20/20143019896](CAB ABSTRACTS)

8 - Socio-economic impacts of parthenium (Parthenium hysterophorus L.) in Peshawar valley, Pakistan.
HAROON KHAN; MARWAT, K. B.; GUL HASSAN; KHAN, M. A.
Department of Weed Science, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan.
Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research; 2013. 19(3):275-293. 44 ref. -- [1815-1094 ] -- English + [acces au document]

--> agricultural production; burning; chemical control; crop yield; cultural control; herbicides; labour; maize; manual weed control; physical control; socioeconomics; sweet sorghum; tillage; tobacco; vegetables; weed control; weeding; weeds; yield losses; ni

--> An exploratory weed survey of four districts of the Peshawar valley, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa viz. Swabi, Mardan, Charsadda and Peshawar were carried out during 2009-11 to study distribution, socioeconomic, environmental and health impacts of Parthenium. Various impacts of the weed were studied by interviewing the farmers. The parthenium weed is well established in Swabi, Mardan and Charsadda districts while in Peshawar it has a little and isolated infestation. The survey depicts that P. hysterophorus is the most frequent and dominant species on road sides, waste lands, grazing lands, crops margins and crop lands with 41%, 18%, 15%, 14% and 12%, respectively. According to the farmers there are several ways for spreading of parthenium weed in which two are prominent i.e. water 37% and vehicles-machinery 26% responsible for its rapid spread. The tiny size and light weight of parthenium seeds help them spread through wind and water easily. Farmers are generally aware of the losses caused by parthenium weed to agriculture productivity. These losses are yield reduction (40%), lack of labor (21%) and quality reductions (16%). Ten percent of the respondents reported that this weed has infested grazing lands, thus causing forage shortage. Moreover, 6% of farmers mentioned that parthenium causes allergy and dermatitis. This weed has been reported infesting sorghum crop (by 35% of the farmers), maize (29%), vegetables (27%) and tobacco (6%). As a result it has caused 30% yield losses in sorghum (45% of respondents) and 20% in maize crop (42% respondents). Most of the farmers in the survey area began to take control parthenium weed since 2005, while still large numbers do not control it. Parthenium weed in the valley is mostly controled through hand weeding (64%) and tillage (17%) which are labor intensive practices. Herbicides and burning methods are also used by some of the farmers. Parthenium weed is also used as a source of fire wood. The findings of study revealed that p
ref.
[K20/20133428193](CAB ABSTRACTS)

9 - The added value of a water footprint approach: micro- and macroeconomic analysis of cotton production, processing and export in water bound Uzbekistan. (Special Issue: Water in Central Asia - perspectives under global change.)
RUDENKO, I.; BEKCHANOV, M.; DJANIBEKOV, U.; LAMERS, J. P. A.
Urgench State University, NGO KRASS, Hamid Olimjon Str., 14, 220100 Urgench, Uzbekistan.
Global and Planetary Change; 2013. 110(Part A):143-151. -- [0921-8181 ] -- English + [acces au document]

--> cotton; decision making; exports; international trade; irrigation; macroeconomic analysis; microeconomic analysis; value added; water management; water resources; water security; water use; water use efficiency; gossypium; gossypium hirsutum; uzbekistan



--> Since independence from the former Soviet Union in 1991, Uzbekistan is challenged to consolidate its efforts and identify and introduce suitable agricultural policies to ease the threat of advancing land, water and ecosystem deterioration. On the one hand, irrigated cotton production provides income, food and energy sources for a large part of the rural households, which accounts for about 70% of the total population. On the other hand, this sector is considered a major driver of the on-going environmental degradation. Due to this dual nature, an integrated approach is needed that allows the analyses of the cotton sector at different stages and, consequently, deriving comprehensive options for action. The findings of the economic based value chain analysis and ecologically-oriented water footprint analysis on regional level were complemented with the findings of an input-output model on national level. This combination gave an added value for better-informed decision-making to reach land, water and ecosyste sustainability, compared to the individual results of each approach. The synergy of approaches pointed at various options for actions, such as to (i) promote the shift of water use from the high water consuming agricultural sector to a less water consuming cotton processing sector, (ii) increase overall water use efficiency by expanding the highly water productive industrial sectors and concurrently decreasing sectors with inefficient water use, and (iii) reduce agricultural water use by improving irrigation and conveyance efficiencies. The findings showed that increasing water use efficiency, manufacturing products with higher value added and raising water users' awareness of the real value of water are essential for providing water security in Uzbekistan.
ref. [K20/20143020727](CAB ABSTRACTS)

1 - A comparative LCA of rice straw utilization for fuels and fertilizer in Thailand : Life-cycle Assessment of Bioproducts
SILALERTRUKSA, THAPAT; GHEEWALA, SHABBIR H.
[b1] Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment (JGSEE). King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Prachauthit Road, Bangkok 10140, Thailand; [b2] Center for Energy Technology and En
Bioresource technology. 2013 vol. 150 : pp. 412 - 419 [8 p.] -- [0960-8524 ] -- English + [acces au document]

--> life cycle assessment; rice straw; biofuels; fertilizer; electricity; rice straw; thailand; fertilizers; electricity; biofuel; ecobalance; life cycle (environment); fuel; cereal by product df - paille de riz; thailande; engrais; electricit

--> Life cycle assessment of four rice straw utilization systems including; (1) direct combustion for electricity, (2) biochemical conversion to bio-ethanol and biogas, (3) thermo-chemical conversion to bio-DME, and (4) incorporation into the soil as fertilizer have been conducted to compare their environmental performances. The results showed that per ton of dry rice straw, the bio-ethanol pathway resulted in the highest environmental sustainability with regards to reductions in global warming and resource depletion potentials. Rice straw bio-DME was preferable vis-a-vis reduction in acidification potential. Rice straw electricity and fertilizer also brought about several environmental benefits. The key environmental benefit of rice straw utilization came from avoiding the deleterious effects from burning straw in situ in the field. Recommendations for enhancing environmental sustainability of rice straw utilization for fuels and fertilizer are provided. NR - 1/4 p.
ref. [K60/140036049](PASCAL)

2 - Application of SEBAL for rice water consumption and productivity estimation through integrating remote sensing and census data in the Sanjiang plain, China
JIA DU; KAISHAN SONG; ZONGMING WANG; LIN LI
[b1] Northeast Institute of Geography and Agricultural Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changehun 130012, China; [b2] State Key Laboratory of Simulation and Regulation of Water Cycle in River Ba
International journal of food, agriculture and environment (Print). 2013 vol. 11 (3-4) : pp. 972 - 978 [7 p.] -- [1459-0255 ] -- English + [acces au document]

--> evapotranspiration; remote sensing; census; water productivity; china; oryza; evapotranspiration; flood plain; alluvial plain; census; remote sensing; water productivity; water consumption df - heilongjiang; chine; oryza; evapotranspiration

--> Crop consumptive water use and productivity are key elements to understanding water management performance. This study mapped rice water consumption, yield, and water productivity (WP) in 23 counties from May to October 2006 in the Sanjiang Plain by combining remotely sensed images, agricultural census and meteorological data. The actual evapotranspiration (ETa) was calculated using the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) model using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products in 12 snapshots in the growing season. The accuracy evaluation of daily ETa for the SEBAL indicates a relative error ranging from -11.3% to 27.6% compared with the Eddy Covariance system (10.5% on average). The seasonal SEBAL estimated ETa was comparable to that from the ground observation with a relative error of 8.9%. The results indicated that the ETa retrieval method based on remote sensing techniques could satisfy the requirements of regional ETa estimation. The calculated average and maximum wate consumption for rice were 446 and 494 mm. respectively. The WP ranged from 1.21 kgm-3 to 1.94 kgm-3 in the Sanjiang Plain. A close linear relationship between WP and rice yield was observed (R2 = 0.84), which indicated that the spatial pattern of WP was similar to that of yield, namely high WP associated with the higher yield in the Sanjiang Plain. A comparative analysis of ETa. rice yield and WP maps indicated greater space for improvement of water use efficiency in the Sanjiang Plain. By improving the irrigation schedule, the WP would be increased, which would in turn significantly reduce the irrigation water use and alleviate the water shortage in the Sanjiang Plain. NR - 1 p.3/4
ref. [K60/140032093](PASCAL)

3 - Biofuel scenarios in a water perspective: The global blue and green water footprint of road transport in 2030
GERBENS-LEENES, P.W.; LIENDEN, A.R. VAN; HOEKSTRA, A.Y.; VAN DER MEER, TH.H.
Global environmental change. 2012 Aug. 22(3) p. 764-775. -- [0959-3780 ] -- English. + [acces au document]

--> elaeis guineensis; biomass; climate change; corn; energy; foods; freshwater; humans; livestock production; soybeans; sugar beet; sugarcane; sweet sorghum; water resources; wheat; china; united states

--> Concerns over energy security and climate change stimulate developments towards renewable energy. Transport is expected to switch from fossil fuel use to the use of fuel mixtures with a larger fraction of biofuels, e.g. bio-ethanol and biodiesel. Growing biomass for biofuels requires water, a scarce resource. Existing scenarios on freshwater use usually consider changes in food and livestock production, and industrial and domestic activities. This research assesses global water use changes related to increasing biofuel use for road transport in 2030 and evaluates the potential contribution to water scarcity. To investigate water demand changes related to a transition to biofuels in road transport, the study combines data from water footprint (WF) analyses with information from the IEA APS energy scenario for 2030. It includes first-generation biofuels, bio-ethanol from sugar cane, sugar beet, sweet sorghum, wheat and maize, and biodiesel from soybean, rapeseed, jatropha and oil palm. Under the IEA APS scena io, the global biofuel WF will increase more than tenfold in the period 20052030. The USA, China and Brazil together will contribute half of the global biofuel WF. In many countries, blue biofuel WFs significantly contribute to blue water scarcity. The research provides a first exploration of the potential contribution of transport biofuel use to blue water scarcity. In 2030, the global blue biofuel WF might have grown to 5.5% of the totally available blue water for humans, causing extra pressure on fresh water resources. When biofuel use continues to expand after 2030, countries should therefore consider the water factor when investigating the extent to which biofuels can satisfy future transport energy demand.
ref. [K04/IND44754859](AGRICOLA)



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